Python Bytes
Python Bytes
Jan 6, 2021
#215 A Visual Introduction to NumPy
Play • 43 min

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Special guest: Jason McDonald

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Michael #1: 5 ways I use code as an astrophysicist

  • Video by Dr. Becky (i.e. Dr Becky Smethurst, an astrophysicist at the University of Oxford)
  • She has a great YouTube channel to check out.
  • #1: Image Processing (of galaxies from telescopes)
    • Noise removal
  • #2: Data analysis
    • Image features (brightness, etc)
    • One example: 600k “rows” of galaxy properties
  • #3: Model fitting
    • e.g. linear fit (visually as well through jupyter)
    • e.g. Galaxies and their black holes grow in mass together
    • Color of galaxies & relative star formation
  • #4: Data visualization
  • #5: Simulations
    • Beautiful example of galaxies colliding
    • Star meets black hole

Brian #2: A Visual Intro to NumPy and Data Representation

  • Jay Alammar
  • I’ve started using numpy more frequently in my own work.
  • Problem: I think of np.array like a Python list. But that’s not right.
  • This visualization guide helped me think of them differently.
  • Covers:
    • arrays
      • creating arrays (I didn’t know about np.ones(), np.zeros(), or np.random.random(), so cool)
      • array arithmetic
      • indexing and slicing
      • aggregation with min, max, sum, mean, prod, etc.
    • matrices : 2D arrays
      • matrix arithmetic
      • dot product (with visuals, it takes seconds to understand)
      • matrix indexing and slicing
      • matrix aggregation (both all entries and column or row with axis parameter)
      • transposing and reshaping
    • ndarray: n-dimensional arrays
    • transforming mathematical formulas to numpy syntax
    • data representation
  • All with excellent drawings to help visualize the concept.

Jason #3: Qt 6 release (including PySide2)

  • Qt 6.0 released on December 8:
    • 3D Graphics abstraction layer called RHI (Rendering Hardware Interface), eliminating hard dependency on OpenGL, and adding support for DirectX, Vulkan, and Metal. Uses native 3D graphics on each device by default.
    • Property bindings:
    • A bunch of refactoring to improve performance.
    • QtQuick styling
    • CAUTION: Many Qt 5 add-ons not yet supported!! They plan to support by 6.2 (end of September 2021).
    • Pay attention to your 5.15 deprecation warnings; those things have now been removed in 6.0.
  • PySide6/Shiboken6 released December 10:
    • New minimum version is Python 3.6, supported up to 3.9.
    • Uses properties instead of (icky) getters/setters now. (Combine with snake_case support from 5.15.2)
    from __feature__ import snake_case, true_property
  • PyQt6 also just released, if you prefer Riverbank’s flavor. (I prefer official.)

Michael #4: Is your GC hyper active? Tame it!

  • Let’s think about gc.get_threshold().
  • Returns (700, 10, 10) by default. That’s read roughly as:
    • For every net 700 allocations of a collection type, a gen 0 collection runs
    • For every gen 0 collection run, 1/10 times it’ll be upgraded to gen 1.
    • For every gen 1 collection run, 1/10 times it’ll be upgraded to gen 2. Aka for every 100 gen 0 it’s upgraded to gen 2.
  • Now consider this:
    query = PageView.objects(created__gte=yesterday).all()
    data = list(query)  # len(data) = 1,500
  • That’s multiple GC runs. We’ve allocated at least 1,500 custom objects. Yet never ever will any be garbage.
  • But we can adjust this. Observe with gc.set_debug(gc.DEBUG_STATS) and consider this ONCE at startup:
    # Clean up what might be garbage
    # Exclude current items from future GC.

    allocs, gen1, gen2 = gc.get_threshold()
    allocs = 50_000  # Start the GC sequence every 10K not 700 class allocations.
    gc.set_threshold(allocs, gen1, gen2)
    print(f"GC threshold set to: {allocs:,}, {gen1}, {gen2}.")
  • May be better, may be worse. But our pytest integration tests over at Talk Python Training run 10-12% faster and are a decent stand in for overall speed perf.
  • Our sitemap was doing 77 GCs for a single page view (77!), now it’s 1-2.

Brian #5: Top 10 Python libraries of 2020

  • tryolabs
  • criteria
    • They were launched or popularized in 2020.
    • They are well maintained and have been since their launch date.
    • They are outright cool, and you should check them out.

General interest:

  1. Typer : FastAPI for CLI applications
    • I can’t believe first commit was right before 2020.
    • Just about a year after the introduction of FastAPI, if you can believe it.
    • Sebastián Ramírez is on 🔥
  2. Rich : rich text and beautiful formatting in the terminal.
  3. Dear PyGui : Python port of the popular Dear ImGui C++ project.
  4. PrettyErrors : transforms stack traces into color coded, well spaced, easier to read stack traces.
  5. Diagrams : lets you draw the cloud system architecture without any design tools, directly in Python code.

Machine Learning:

  1. Hydra and OmegaConf
  2. PyTorch Lightning
  3. Hummingbird
  4. HiPlot : plotting high dimensional data

Also general

  1. Scalene : CPU and memory profiler for Python scripts capable of correctly handling multi-threaded code and distinguishing between time spent running Python vs. native code, without having to modify your code to use it.

Jason #6: Adoption of pyproject.toml — why is this so darned controversial?

The goal of this file is to have a single standard place for all Python tool configurations. It was introduced in PEP 518, but the community seems divided over standardizing.

A bunch of tools are lagging behind others in implementing. Tracked in this repo

A few of the bigger “sticking points”:




“Why did the programmer always refuse to check his code into the repository? He was afraid to commit.”

Kubernetes Podcast from Google
Kubernetes Podcast from Google
Adam Glick and Craig Box
Cilium, with Thomas Graf
Thomas Graf is the inventor of Cilium and the co-founder of Isovalent. Cilium is a container networking plugin built on top of eBPF, bringing modern SDN technologies to accelerate your pods. Adam and Craig also discuss the many uses of Christmas trees. Do you have something cool to share? Some questions? Let us know: * web: * mail: * twitter: @kubernetespod Chatter of the week * Christmas trees: * Keep clear (mostly) * Culinary uses * Discussed in episodes 104 and 111 News of the week * Google grants $3m to the CNCF to run the Kubernetes infrastructure * AWS Managed Grafana and Prometheus * In partnership with Grafana Labs * Red Hat acquires Stackrox * Windows Containers GA in OpenShift 4.6 * CNCF Annual Report * KubeCon NA 2020 Transparency Report * Rancher announces Harvester * I’ll give you the key * Kubernetes 1.20 feature deep-dives: * Pod impersonation an short-lived volumes * Third-party device metrics GA * More granular control of storage permission * Sonobuoy goes beyond conformance * Project Contour security audit * Pulse: stats from Envoy Mobile * Crossplane 1.0 * Project Karavi from Dell Technologies * Cluster API provider for Microsoft Azure * Vitess project journey report * Tanzu Gemfire * Kubernetes Security Essentials from the CNCF Links from the interview * Chains and tables * Berkeley Packet Filter * eBPF * Episode 91: eBPF and Falco, with Leonard Di Donato * High level languages for kernel developers * eBPF Summit 2020 * Cilium * Is it DNS? * Is it a series of tubes? * BGP * Hubble * Accelerating Envoy and Istio with Cilium * Episode 128: Antrea, with Antonin Bas * Bringing Cilium to GKE with Dataplane v2 * Maglev load balancing connection scheduling * Isovalent * Notes on A16Z’s investment * Thomas Graf on Twitter
41 min
Azure DevOps Podcast
Azure DevOps Podcast
Jeffrey Palermo
Jérôme Laban on Multi-Platform DevOps - Episode 123
This week, Jeffrey is joined by Jérôme Laban, CTO of the open-source Uno Platform, and a 4x recipient of the Microsoft MVP award. The Uno Platform is a framework that aims to improve the development cycle of cross-platform apps using Windows, iOS, Android, and WebAssembly using Mono and Xamarin. It is also Open Source (Apache 2.0) and available on GitHub. In this conversation, Jérôme shares their DevOps success story and all of the thought that went into creating a complete DevOps environment for a platform that targets a multitude of computing environments. He also shares details of its creation, what developers should know about it, gives advice, and shares invaluable resources. Topics of Discussion: [:38] Be sure to visit AzureDevOps.Show for past episodes and show notes. [1:02] About The Azure DevOps Podcast and Jeffrey’s offer to speak at virtual user groups. [1:10] Clear Measure is hiring! Be sure to check out the link in the show notes. [1:33] About today’s guest, Jérôme Laban! [1:49] Jeffrey welcomes Jérôme to the podcast. [1:58] About Jérôme’s career background and what has led him to become the CTO of the Uno Platform. [4:03] Regarding the Uno Platform, what should people be looking for now vs. what they should be looking for in the future for cross-platform and mobile development? [8:00] Jérôme walks listeners through the creation of the Uno Platform. [13:44] Jérôme elaborates on the design of the Uno Platform and the branching strategy that they put in place at the front-end. [15:08] The Uno Platform has enabled automated builds upon pull request creation. How many tests are they able to fit into that and what duration does that pull request build take on the feature branch? [16:28] Is there a short cycle build for smaller issues such as a spelling error? [17:41] Jérôme explains what happens in the environment after the pull request is accepted and merges into master. [20:25] A word from Azure DevOps Podcast’s sponsor: Clear Measure. [20:56] Do you fully deploy to target platforms on the pull request build process? [22:08] Jérôme discusses Calculator.Platform.Uno. [24:11] Jérôme received the codebase for the calculator from the Windows team. Did he also receive the test cases for it as well? And did those port over? [25:28] With Uno, will WinForms applications and WPF desktop applications just be able to be “slid” into WebAssembly and URL launched? [27:09] With Uno, how many different types of test frameworks are there and what are they? [30:24] Is the state-of-the-art for web still Selenium? What about mobile? [31:05] Does the Xamarin UI test cover Android and iOS? [31:13] What would you use for UI testing for WebAssembly? [32:38] If people are interested in this cross-platform UI testing do they need to use Uno Platform? [33:33] For developers that are developing new applications now, what technologies and frameworks should they be investing in and which should they be letting go as we look ahead into the future? [36:13] Jeffrey thanks Jérôme for joining the podcast. [36:45] Where to get in touch with Jérôme and learn more about the Uno Platform. Mentioned in this Episode: Azure DevOps Clear Measure (Sponsor) .NET DevOps for Azure: A Developer's Guide to DevOps Architecture the Right Way, by Jeffrey Palermo — Available on Amazon! — Click here to download the .NET DevOps for Azure ebook! Jeffrey Palermo’s Youtube Jeffrey Palermo’s Twitter — Follow to stay informed about future events! The Azure DevOps Podcast’s Twitter: @AzureDevOpsShow Uno Platform Uno Platform Discord Community @UnoPlatform on Twitter Jérôme Laban’s Twitter @jlaban Jérôme Laban’s Blog Blazor .NET 5.0 NuGet Xamarin Calculator.Platform.Uno Selenium GitVersion Mergify Want to Learn More? Visit AzureDevOps.Show for show notes and additional episodes.
38 min
Software Defined Talk
Software Defined Talk
Software Defined Talk LLC
Episode 281: That’s a thing, I don’t need to read about it
This week we discuss VMware CEO Pat Gelsinger jumping to Intel and what is going on with DevSecOps. Plus, lots advice on picking movies both you and your partner will enjoy. Rundown VMware CEO → Intel What’s the latest Solarwinds hack news? Coté is figuring out “DevSecOps” - or is it “DevOpsSec”? Relevant to your interests M&A Red Hat to Acquire Kubernetes-Native Security Leader StackRox ( F5 to acquire @Volterra_ ( VMware/Intel VMware has the strategy and culture to thrive after CEO Pat Gelsinger's exit to Intel ( VMware Names Zane Rowe As Interim CEO ( Prodigal Son Gelsinger Returns As Intel CEO ( Bitcoin and Blockchain Is blockchain coming to your bank? ( 85% of Italian Banks Are Exchanging Interbank Transfer Data on Corda - CoinDesk ( Lost Passwords Lock Millionaires Out of Their Bitcoin Fortunes ( Don’t Forget Your Bitcoins ( RISC-V BeagleBoard BeagleV ( Raspberry PI Why We Love the Raspberry Pi ( Buy a Raspberry Pi Zero W – Raspberry Pi ( Solarwinds Details on SolarWinds Hack ( SolarWinds hires former Trump cyber security chief Chris Krebs ( NYT JetBrains story, I'm calling it - the story was irresponsibly released. ( Deplatforming Parler accuses Amazon of breaking antitrust law in suspending hosting services. ( Parler Finds Refuge With the Far-Right's Favorite Webhost ( Parler loses data ( Parler’s amateur coding could come back to haunt Capitol Hill rioters ( The balkanization of the cloud is bad for everyone ( Decentralization Is A Necessity Now ( It happened. Twitter shut down @realDonaldTrump for good ( State of the World 2021 ( Goodreads plans to retire API access, disables existing API keys | Joe's website ( ‘Your Cock Is Mine Now:’ Hacker Locks Internet-Connected Chastity Cage, Demands Ransom ( Video games have replaced music as the most important aspect of youth culture | Sean Monahan ( Intel CEO Bob Swan to be replaced with VMWare's Pat Gelsinger ( WhatsApp gives users an ultimatum: Share data with Facebook or stop using the app ( First Oracle said it powered Zoom. Then AWS claimed it. Now Zoom says it uses co-located kit ( Poland plans to make censoring of social media accounts illegal ( Dropbox to cut workforce by 11% ( Nonsense I'm glad you have passed the certification! I just don't want to see it. ( Coté in TikTok ( Sponsors strongDM — Manage and audit remote access to infrastructure. Start your free 14-day trial today at: ( Now Hiring Jordi wants you to work at Tricentis ( Michael wants to be a Solution Architect at Cloudbees ( More info in SDT Slack ( see channel #jobs Conferences Call for Papers ( ends on Jan. 31st for DevOpsDay Texas on March 2nd. ( SDT news & hype Join us in Slack ( Send your postal address to ( and we will send you free laptop stickers! Follow us on Twitch (, Twitter (, Instagram ( and LinkedIn ( Brandon built the Quick Concall iPhone App ( and he wants you to buy it for $0.99. Use the code SDT to get $20 off Coté’s book, ( Digital WTF (, so $5 total. Become a sponsor of Software Defined Talk (! Recommendations Matt: Apple TV’s Ted Lasso ( Brandon: Possessor ( Coté: Descript (, so far. Bear app ( Don’t spike your mind during family time with inserting work. Photo Credit ( Photo Credit (
1 hr 2 min
The Cloudcast
The Cloudcast
Cloudcast Media
An Event-Driven Apps Look Ahead for 2021
James Urquhart (@jamesurquhart, Global Field CTO @VMware, O’Reilly Author) talks about event-driven application architectures, how it's changing real-time business models, and technology stack driven the evolution.  *SHOW: *483 *SHOW SPONSOR LINKS:* * BMC Wants to Know if your business is on its A-Game * BMC Autonomous Digital Enterprise * Datadog Security Monitoring Homepage - Modern Monitoring and Analytics * Try Datadog yourself by starting a free, 14-day trial today. Listeners of this podcast will also receive a free Datadog T-shirt. * Okta - You should not be building your own Auth * Learn how Okta helped Cengage improve student success rates during COVID. *CLOUD NEWS OF THE WEEK *- *CHECK OUT OUR NEW PODCAST - **"CLOUDCAST BASICS"* *SHOW NOTES:* * Flow Architectures - The Future of Event Streaming & Event-Driven Integration * The Cloudcast Eps.43 - James Urquhart * The Cloudcast Eps.344 - Bringing AI to the Edge ( * The Cloudcast Eps.334 - The Future of Edge Computing (Derek Collison, Synadia) *Topic 1 *- Welcome back to the show. We’ve known you for quite a while, going back to working together on very early Cloud stuff. You’ve always enjoyed being focused on complex, distributed systems. Tell us what you’re focused on these days.  *Topic 2 *- Let’s talk about this concept of “event-driven” and flow. Where did it come from, what does it do, why is it valuable to application designers? *  * *Topic 2a *- What is a “flow” and how is it related to event-driven? *Topic 3 *- Events are data. We’ve had relational databases for data, and then we had NoSQL or eventually-consistent databases for data. Are events a new type of data, or a new way to deal with data in a different context?  (channels, replays, etc.) *Topic 4 *- Can we talk through an example of an event-driven application, or an event-driven integration between multiple organizations? How is it new/different? What unique capabilities does it bring now?  (Kafka, IoT, API Gateways, etc.) *Topic 5 *- Cloud made IT self-service. Serverless made Ops become on-demand. If I’m a business leader, what does event-driven give us?*  * *Topic 6 *- Where are we in the maturity of event-driven architectures? What might be some of the next stages coming in 2021 or 2022?   *FEEDBACK?* * Email: show at thecloudcast dot net * Twitter: @thecloudcastnet
43 min
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