Python Bytes
Python Bytes
Oct 2, 2020
#201 Understand git by rebuilding it in Python
40 min

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Michael #1: Under the hood of calling C/C++ from Python

  • Basics first: what C compiles to?
    • Each operating system features some exact format to work with. Among the most popular ones are:
    • ELF (Executable and Linkable Format), used by most of Linux distros
    • PE (Portable Executable), used by Windows
    • Mach-O (Mach object), used by Apple products
  • We also need to make our library visible to our programs. An easiest way to do so is to copy it to /usr/lib/ - default system-wide directory for libraries. Maybe put it in system / system32 on Windows?
  • ctypes: the simplest way
    • With the shared object compiled, we are ready to call it.
    • Consider ctypes to be the easiest way to execute some C code, because:
    • it’s included in the standard library,
    • writing a wrapper uses plain Python.
    • lib = ctypes.CDLL(f'/usr/lib/')
    • lib.get_pi
  • For C: You need to be clear about the calling convention (extern “C” for example)
    • Now we can load libraries at runtime, but we are still missing the way to generate correct caller ABI to use external C libraries. Do deal with it, libffi was created.
    • Libffi is a portable C library, designed for implementing FFI tools, hence the name. Given structs and functions definitions, it calculates an ABI of function calls at runtime.
  • A mature approach to improve in this area is to allow libraries to introduce themselves. We can oblige every library to define a function named entry_point, which will return metadata about functions it contains.
  • Final destination: C/C++ extensions and Python/C API
// NOTE: entry point function has dynamic name PyInit_[HTML_REMOVED]
PyMODINIT_FUNC PyInit_mymath(void)
    return PyModule_Create(&mymathmodule);
  • The main difference is that we have to wrap initial C functions with Python-specific ones. CPython interpreter uses its own PyObject type internally rather than raw int, char*, and so on, and we need the wrappers to perform the conversion.
  • Cython, Boost.Python, pybind11 and all all all
    • The main challenge of writing pure C extensions is a massive amount of boilerplate that needs to be written. Mainly this boilerplate is related to wrapping and unwrapping PyObject. It becomes especially hard if a module introduces its own classes (object types).
    • To solve this issue, a plethora of different tools was created. All of them introduce a certain way to generate wrapping boilerplate automatically. They also provide easy access to C++ code and advanced tools for the compilation of extensions.
    • Examples
    • aiohttp - asyncio web framework that uses Cython for HTTP parsing,
    • uvloop - event loop that is wrapping libuv, fully written in Cython,
    • httptools - bindings to nodejs HTTP parser, also fully written in Cython (a lot of other big projects like sanic or uvicorn use httptools).

Cecil #2: ugit: DIY Git in Python

Michael #3: Things I Learned to Become a Senior Software Engineer

  • by Niel Kakkar
  • Growing using different ladders of abstraction
    • Entering my second year, I had all the basics in place.
    • I did figure out something insightful. I’m working inside the software development lifecycle, but this lifecycle is part of a bigger lifecycle: the product and infrastructure development lifecycle.
  • Learning what people around me are doing
    • Since we’re not in a closed system, it makes sense to better understand the job of the product managers, the sales people, and the analysts.
    • Product managers are the best source for this. They know how the business makes money, who are the clients, and what do clients need.
  • Learning good habits of mind
  • Strategies for making day-to-day more effective: The other side of the coin is habits that allow you to think well. It starts with noticing little irritations during the day, inefficiencies in meetings, and then figuring out strategies to avoid them.
  • Some good habits I’ve noticed:
    • Never leave a meeting without making the decision / having a next action
    • Decide who is going to get it done. Things without an owner rarely get done.
    • Document design decisions made during a project
  • Acquiring new tools for thought & mental models
    • New tools for thought are related to thinking well, but more specific to software engineering.
    • For example, I was recently struggling with a domain with lots of complex business logic. Edge cases were the norm, and we wanted to design a system that handles this cleanly. That’s when I read about Domain Driven Design
  • Protect your slack
    • When I say slack, I don’t mean the company, but the adjective.
    • One thing that gives me high output and productivity gains is to “slow down”. Want to get more done? Slow down.
    • When there is slack, you get a chance to experiment, learn, and think things through. This means you get enough time to get things done.
    • When there is no slack, deadlines are tight, and all your focus goes into getting shit done.
  • Ask Questions
    • Q: What is a package?
    • A: It’s code wrapped together that can be installed on a system.
    • Q: Why do I need packages? A: They give a consistent way of getting all the files you need in the right place. Without them, things are easy to mess up. You need to ensure every file is where it’s supposed to be, the system paths are set up, and dependent packages are available.
    • Q: How do packages differ from applications I can install on my system? A: It’s a very similar idea! Windows installer is like a package manager that helps install applications. Similarly, DPKG and rpm packages are like .exes that you can install on Linux systems, with the help of apt and yum package managers, which are like the windows installers.
  • Force multipliers
    • One sprint I didn’t get much done myself. I wrote very limited code. Instead, I co-ordinated which changes should go out when (it was a complicated sprint), tested they worked well, did lots of code reviews, made alternate design suggestions, and pair-programmed wherever I could to get things un-stuck. We got everything done, and in this case, zooming out helped make decisions for PRs easier. It was one of our highest velocity sprints.
  • Embrace fear: I’ve learned to embrace this feeling. It excites me. It’s information about what I’m going to learn. I’ve taken it so far that I’ve started tracking it in my human log - “Did I feel fear this week?” If the answer is no too many weeks in a row, I’ve gotten too comfortable.
  • Super powers
    • Getting into the source code when documentation isn’t enough
      • Quest: Reading open source code.
    • Quickly build a mental model for the code you’re looking at
      • Quest: Reading open source code.
    • Embracing fear
      • Quest: Build a side project.
    • Confidence to express ignorance
      • Quest: Overcome the first gotcha with growing.

Cecil #4: Build tech skills for space exploration

Michael #5: Profiling Django Views

  • by Farhan Azmi
  • We know we need to profile our code
  • Many Python profiling tools exist, but this article will limit only to the most used tools: cProfile and django-silk . The two tools mainly profile in regards to function calls and execution time.
  • To incorporate cProfile to Django views, we can write our own middleware that captures the profiling on every request sent to our Django views.
  • Thankfully, there exists a simpler solution: django-cprofile-middleware. It is a simple profiling middleware created by a Github user omarish.
  • To profile this view with the installed middleware, we can just append prof parameter to the end of the URL, i.e. http://localhost:8000/api/auth/users/availability/?username=[HTML_REMOVED]&email=[HTML_REMOVED]&prof
  • We can visualize the profile result further with Python profiler visualizing library, such as SnakeViz. Just add &download to the request.
  • the profile result could not show which database query that brings performance hit. This is needed especially when our application is centered around database (SQL) queries: That’s where django-silk comes in.
  • Add as middleware: Silk will automatically intercept requests we make to our views and the UI can be accessed from the path /silk/ .
  • Dive into a request to see all the headers/form/etc + DB query and perf.

Cecil #6: Send an SMS message with Azure Communication Services


Joke: Dependencies

Kubernetes Podcast from Google
Kubernetes Podcast from Google
Adam Glick and Craig Box
KubeCon NA 2020, with Stephen Augustus
Join us for all the news from KubeCon NA 2020, and a conversation with conference co-chair Stephen Augustus. Stephen is a Senior Open Source Engineer on the VMware Tanzu team, a chair of Kubernetes’ SIG Release, and a leader in many other parts of the project, past and present. Do you have something cool to share? Some questions? Let us know: * web: * mail: * twitter: @kubernetespod Chatter of the week * The kākāpō wins Bird of the Year * We’re off for 2 weeks. See you on December 8! News of the week * Cisco acquires Banzai Cloud * CNCF announces Cloud Native Survey 2020 results * Red Hat: New edge features, industrial AI/ML blueprint and AWS launch * CNCF End User Tech Radar for storage * New End User benefits * Envoy Mobile joins the CNCF * New sandbox projects * cert-manager * cdk8s * Kyverno * OpenKruise * Pravega * SchemaHero * Tinkerbell * k8ssandra from Datastax * Episode 98 with Sam Ramji * k0s from Mirantis * announces Gloo Mesh Enterprise and rebrands products * Episode 55, with Idit Levine * Pinniped * Shipa launches Ketch * Kinvolk launches Headlamp * The SPIFFE book “Solving The Bottom Turtle” * Episode 45, with Andrew Jessup * Anthos Developer Sandbox * GKE ingress features * Ambassador Labs takes in $18m and launches v1.9 * Tanzu SQL: Postgres on Kubernetes * Lightning round: * Accurics extends Terrascan * AWS adds containers to Lightsail * Arrikto takes $10m in funding * Brobridge releases Gravity * CircleCI runner is GA * Cloud66 for agencies and multiple database support * Cloudflare Origin CA cert-manager plugin * Cloudical Vanillastack * Cloudify version 5.1 * Codefresh launches GitOps 2.0 features * Commvault backup-as-a-service * Diamanti Spektra 3.1 and customer portal * Dynatrace PurePath 4 * Elastisys Compliant Kubernetes * The Fairwinds Kubernetes Maturity Model * Garden takes “seed” funding * Gremlin adds soundproofing * Humio Operator * Instana adds observability tools on Kubernetes * Intuit runs TurboTax on Kubernetes * Kioxia announces a new storage offering * Kubecost adds features for monitoring outside a cluster * KubeMQ adds automatic network creation * Kubermatic updates KubeOne to v1.1 * Kubernative SINA * Kublr 1.19 * Lablup announced 20.09 RC * Magalix launches KubeAdvisor 2.0 * Mayadata launches Kubera Propel and Kubera Chaos * Mirantis adds extensions to Lens * Puppet Labs adds Relay to Puppet Enterprise * Reblaze announces Curiefense to add WAF to Envoy * Replicates wants to help you Troubleshoot * Styra adds new editions to DAS * Sysdig introduces Kubernetes-native network security (ZTNSK) and partners with IBM Cloud * TrilioVault for Kubernetes v2.0 * Zerto for Kubernetes * Google Open Source Live Kubernetes Links from the interview * KubeCon NA 2020 * Episode 117, with Constance Caramanolis * CNCF Twitch * SIG Friday: ping Stephen for the current link * Slack * CNCF Slack * Kubernetes Slack * Hallway Track * Kubernetes Podcast chat * CoreOS * CoreOS Tectonic * CoreOS acquired by Red Hat * Tectonic on Azure * SIG Azure * SIG Release * SIG PM (retired) * Kubernetes Enhancement Process * Receipts process KEP * Sidecar containers - KEP closed! * Production readiness review * Episode 10, with Josh Berkus and Tim Pepper * Release managers * Black Lives Matter announcement banner * Better announcements * Kubernetes Naming working group * Inclusive Naming project * Dan Kohn memorial * Stephen Augustus on Twitter and on the web
53 min
Streaming Audio: A Confluent podcast about Apache Kafka
Streaming Audio: A Confluent podcast about Apache Kafka
Confluent, original creators of Apache Kafka®
Multi-Tenancy in Apache Kafka ft. Anna Pozvner
Multi-tenancy has been quite the topic within the Apache Kafka® community. Anna Povzner, an engineer on the Confluent team, spends most of her time working on multi-tenancy in Kafka in Confluent Cloud. Anna kicks off the conversation with Tim Berglund (Senior Director of Developer Experience, Confluent) by explaining what multi-tenancy is, why it is worthy to be desired, and advantages over single-tenant architecture. By putting more applications and use cases on the same Kafka cluster instead of having a separate Kafka cluster for each individual application and use case, multi-tenancy helps minimize the costs of physical machines and also maintenance. She then switches gears to discuss quotas in Kafka. Quotas are essentially limits—you must set quotas for every tenant (or set up defaults) in Kafka. Anna says it’s always best to start with bandwidth quotas because they’re better understood. Stick around until the end as Anna gives us a sneak peek on what’s ahead for multi-tenant Kafka, including KIP-612, the addition of the connection rate quota, which will help protect brokers. EPISODE LINKS * Sharing is Caring: Toward Creating Self-Tuning Multi-Tenant Kafka (Anna Povzner, Confluent) Join the Confluent Community Slack * Learn more with Kafka tutorials, resources, and guides at Confluent Developer * Live demo: Kafka streaming in 10 minutes on Confluent Cloud * Use *60PDCAST* to get an additional $60 of free Confluent Cloud usage (details)
44 min
Software Defined Talk
Software Defined Talk
Software Defined Talk LLC
Episode 272: This time we’re doing it in green
This week we discuss IBM buying Instana, highlights from Kubecon and the rise of Substack. Plus, Coté updates us on his quest to live the iPad lifestyle. The Rundown IBM To Acquire Instana For Undisclosed Terms ( Instana Crunch Base Overview ( KubeCon Review Envoy Mobile Joins the CNCF ( Open Source Web Engine Servo to be Hosted at Linux Foundation - The Linux Foundation ( Relevant to your Interests The Evolution of Cloud ( 2020 State of DevOps Report | presented by Puppet, & CircleCi ( Amazon's Inferentia AI Chip Is Ready For Prime Time, Now Powers the Alexa Service ( FinOps Foundation launches Kubernetes Whitepaper with CNCF, adds vendor members, Densify, SoftwareOne, Virtasant and more... ( Google Pay reimagined: pay, save, manage expenses and more ( New Zoom feature can alert room owners of possible Zoombombing disruptions ( Fast Facts Your Pa$$word doesn't matter ( 11 facts about real world container use ( Half of all containers are now managed by cloud provider and third-party registries ( Apple Apple to lower commissions for small businesses on App Store ( Safely open apps on your Mac ( Yeah, Apple’s M1 MacBook Pro is powerful, but it’s the battery life that will blow you away ( Mac users couldn’t launch apps this afternoon after Apple verification server issue ( Nonsense Welcome to Slow Boring ( Zoom Is Temporarily Removing Its 40 Minute Limit on Video Calls for Thanksgiving Day ( Sponsors strongDM — Manage and audit remote access to infrastructure. Start your free 14-day trial today at: ( Teleport provides consolidated access to all computing resources such as servers, Kubernetes clusters or internal applications across all environments. Watch a demo, download the free version, or sign up for cloud at ( Listener Feedback Little Snitch (http://Little Snitch 4) from Jordy Mac users couldn’t launch apps this afternoon after Apple verification server issue ( Conferences Mykel Alvis All Day DevOps Talk ( SDT news & hype Join us in Slack ( Send your postal address to ( and we will send you free laptop stickers! Follow us on Twitch (, Twitter (, Instagram ( and LinkedIn ( Brandon built the Quick Concall iPhone App ( and he wants you to buy it for $0.99. Use the code SDT to get $20 off Coté’s book, ( Digital WTF (, so $5 total. Become a sponsor of Software Defined Talk (! Recommendations Matt: Rewatching Veep ( Brandon: The Undoing ( on HBO ( and Serverless Data APIs ( from the Cloudcast Coté: Dithering ( podcast ( ( (; Ted Laso. ( Photo Credit from Red Hat Container Coloring Book ( Photo Credit (
1 hr 5 min
Azure DevOps Podcast
Azure DevOps Podcast
Jeffrey Palermo
Scott Nichols on the State of Azure - Part 2 - Episode 116
This episode is part 2 of the interview with Scott Nichols! Be sure to tune in to part 1 first before joining in on this episode’s conversation. Scott Nichols is a Sr. Cloud Solutions Architect, Scott works for the commercial enterprise division serving the west region. He is also the leader of the .NET and the Azure user groups in Boise, Idaho. He started his career in the IT profession in 1993 as a mainframe and web developer. Since then, he has served as a Lead Software Engineer/Solution Architect, a Software Development Engineering Manager, a Sr. Cloud Software Solution Architect, a Sr. Enterprise Solution Architect, and of course, most recently, a Sr. Cloud Solutions Architect at Microsoft since 2019. In this second part, the interview transitions from discussing the state of Azure and the Cloud industry into talking about how customers are modernizing their existing applications and infrastructure for Azure. Scott shares about infrastructure as code tools he sees as having the most traction right now, his recommendations for those looking to get their application into Azure, and what he sees as being the most successful pathways for his customers utilizing Azure infrastructure. Topics of Discussion: [:38] Be sure to visit AzureDevOps.Show for past episodes and show notes. [1:01] About The Azure DevOps Podcast and Jeffrey’s offer to speak at virtual user groups. [1:11] Clear Measure is hiring! Be sure to check out the link in the show notes. [1:33] Jeffrey welcomes Scott back to the podcast for part 2 and shares about this episode’s conversation. [2:06] The infrastructure as code tools Scott sees as having the most traction. [4:35] Does Scott have any customers that have used Azure Bicep yet? [4:56] How Scott thinks about Azure infrastructure and what he sees as being most successful with his customers. [7:42] For certain tweaks in the infrastructure, where does an ARM template work? [9:45] What is the mechanism in Azure that would know that the Powershell script has not been run yet or has already been run so that it doesn’t run it again? [11:07] A word from Azure DevOps Podcast’s sponsor: Clear Measure. [11:38] For people looking to get their application into Azure, what would Scott recommend their next steps be? [20:37] Jeffrey thanks Scott for joining the podcast and Scott offers some parting words of advice for developers. Mentioned in this Episode: Azure DevOps Clear Measure (Sponsor) .NET DevOps for Azure: A Developer's Guide to DevOps Architecture the Right Way, by Jeffrey Palermo — Available on Amazon! — Click here to download the .NET DevOps for Azure ebook! Jeffrey Palermo’s Youtube Jeffrey Palermo’s Twitter — Follow to stay informed about future events! The Azure DevOps Podcast’s Twitter: @AzureDevOpsShow Scott Nichols’ LinkedIn Scott Nichols’ Twitter @TheScottNichols Azure Architecture Center - Microsoft Amazon Web Services (AWS) Azure Architectures - Microsoft Docs Google Cloud (GCP) Microsoft Cloud Adoption Framework (CAF) Azure Bicep on GitHub .NET Conference 2020 Python Terraform Azure Resource Manager (ARM) CICD PowerShell HashiCorp Want to Learn More? Visit AzureDevOps.Show for show notes and additional episodes.
23 min
The Cloudcast
The Cloudcast
Cloudcast Media
eBPF & Cilium Cloud-native Networking
Dan Wendlandt (@danwendlandt, CEO/Co-Founder @Isovalent talks about the evolution of cloud networking, eBPF and Cilium for programmable infrastructure, and blurring the lines between networking, security and service-mesh.  *SHOW: *476 *SHOW SPONSOR LINKS:* * CloudAcademy -Build hands-on technical skills. Get measurable results.  * Get 50% of the monthly price of CloudAcademy by using code CLOUDCAST * Datadog Security Monitoring Homepage - Modern Monitoring and Analytics * Try Datadog yourself by starting a free, 14-day trial today. Listeners of this podcast will also receive a free Datadog T-shirt. * Learn more about Fauna: * Try FaunaDB for Free: *CLOUD NEWS OF THE WEEK *- *PodCTL Podcast is Back (Enterprise Kubernetes) *- *SHOW NOTES:* * Isovalent (homepage) * Cilium (homepage) * What is eBPF?  *Topic 1 *- Welcome to the show. We’ve been following your work for a while (Nicira, OpenShift networking, etc), but tell our audience a little bit about your background. *Topic 2* - A few years ago I wrote an article that said, “if you’re in networking, the #1 skill you should learn is Linux”. Why has there been so much shift from “traditional networking” to so many new capabilities being implemented in software, and specifically Linux? *Topic 3 *- Help us understand these two new concepts - eBPF and Cilium. It’s new packet filtering, it’s container networking, it’s multi-cluster networking, it can help with observability - lots going on here.  *Topic 4 *- What are some of the gaps in today’s networking/filtering/observability stacks that can improve with eBPF/Cilium?*   * *Topic 5 *- We’ve seen quite a few companies evolve from expertise in an open-source project to commercial offerings. What lessons have you learned from other companies that shape how Isovalent will both go-to-market and also engage with ecosystem partners?* * *Topic 6 *- What are some of the common use-cases or applications you see that highlight the value of the Isovalent stack?  *FEEDBACK?* * Email: show at thecloudcast dot net * Twitter: @thecloudcastnet
36 min
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