157: Iliotibial Band Syndrome (Runner's Knee)
18 min

In Episode 157: Iliotibial Band Syndrome (Runner's Knee) I review the following:
-Anatomy related to IT  Band Syndrome.
-Causes of IT Band Syndrome.
-Differential Diagnoses (Look-a-likes)
-How to treat it and so much more!

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The Rx Bricks Podcast
The Rx Bricks Podcast
Anatomy of the Heart
The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a fist. It pumps blood throughout the body, commanding a vast vascular network to deliver oxygen to every cell in the body. It beats nonstop for as long as we are alive, at an average of 80/min. So by the time we are 80 years old, our hearts will have beaten more than 3 billion times! The heart’s position in the center of our chest mimics the organ’s central position as the source of human love, spirituality, courage, and resistance. It is an amazingly beautiful organ; let’s learn more about its anatomy. After listening to this AudioBrick, you should be able to: * Describe the pericardial sac and its layers, the pericardial space, and the pericardial fluid. * Identify the three layers of the heart. * Identify the four heart chambers, describe their topography, and explain their functions during systole and diastole. * Describe the systemic and pulmonary vessels that enter and exit the heart, including their origin and destination, and the oxygenation status of the blood being transported. * Explain the basic functional anatomy of the atrioventricular (AV) and semilunar valves, and explain how they operate during systole and diastole to create the four heart sounds (S1, S2, S3, and S4). * Describe the role of papillary muscles and chordae tendineae. You can also check out the original Anatomy of the Heart brick from our Cardiovascular collection, which is available for free. Learn more about Rx Bricks by signing up for a free USMLE-Rx account: www.usmle-rx.com You will get 5 days of full access to our Rx360+ program, including nearly 800 Rx Bricks. After the 5-day period, you will still be able to access over 150 free bricks, including the entire collections for General Microbiology and Cellular and Molecular Biology. *** If you enjoyed this episode, we’d love for you to leave a review on Apple Podcasts. It helps with our visibility, and the more med students (or future med students) listen to the podcast, the more we can provide to the future physicians of the world. Follow USMLE-Rx at: Facebook: www.facebook.com/usmlerx Blog: www.firstaidteam.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/firstaidteam Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/firstaidteam/ YouTube: www.youtube.com/USMLERX Learn how you can access over 150 of our bricks for FREE: https://www.usmle-rx.com/free-bricks/
20 min
BrainWaves: A Neurology Podcast
BrainWaves: A Neurology Podcast
Jim Siegler, MD | Neurologist | Father | Friend of dogs
#175 Call your Mom
COVID-19 is more than just a threat to your physical health. Even if you are never infected, you may not be free of it. In today's program, we take lessons from prior pandemics and consider the sociocultural effects of a global infectious disease. Be advised, this one is of the "sentimental" variety. Produced by James E. Siegler. Music courtesy of Purple Planet Music, Meydn, Kevin MacLeod and Shane Ivers, which you can find at Silvermansound.com. The opening theme was composed by Jimothy Dalton. Sound effects by Mike Koenig and Daniel Simion. Unless otherwise mentioned in the podcast, no competing financial interests exist in the content of this episode. BrainWaves' podcasts and online content are intended for medical education only and should not be used for clinical decision making. Be sure to follow us on Twitter @brainwavesaudio for the latest updates to the podcast. REFERENCES * Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2095-128. * Fineberg HV. Pandemic preparedness and response--lessons from the H1N1 influenza of 2009. The New England journal of medicine. 2014;370:1335-42. * Shanks GD. Insights from unusual aspects of the 1918 influenza pandemic. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015;13:217-22. * Armitage R and Nellums LB. COVID-19 and the consequences of isolating the elderly. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5:e256. * Bonaccorsi G, Pierri F, Cinelli M, Flori A, Galeazzi A, Porcelli F, Schmidt AL, Valensise CM, Scala A, Quattrociocchi W and Pammolli F. Economic and social consequences of human mobility restrictions under COVID-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117:15530-15535. * Dinmohamed AG, Visser O, Verhoeven RHA, Louwman MWJ, van Nederveen FH, Willems SM, Merkx MAW, Lemmens V, Nagtegaal ID and Siesling S. Fewer cancer diagnoses during the COVID-19 epidemic in the Netherlands. Lancet Oncol. 2020;21:750-751. * Jeffery MM, D'Onofrio G, Paek H, Platts-Mills TF, Soares WE, 3rd, Hoppe JA, Genes N, Nath B and Melnick ER. Trends in Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Admissions in Health Care Systems in 5 States in the First Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the US. JAMA internal medicine. 2020;180:1328-1333. * Rabinovitz B, Jaywant A and Fridman CB. Neuropsychological functioning in severe acute respiratory disorders caused by the coronavirus: implications for the current COVID-19 pandemic. Clin Neuropsychol. 2020:1-27. * Santini ZI, Jose PE, York Cornwell E, Koyanagi A, Nielsen L, Hinrichsen C, Meilstrup C, Madsen KR and Koushede V. Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and symptoms of depression and anxiety among older Americans (NSHAP): a longitudinal mediation analysis. Lancet Public Health. 2020;5:e62-e70. * Wong LE, et al. Where are all the patients? New Eng J Med (2020): Published online 14 May 2020. Available at https://catalyst.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/CAT.20.0193.
21 min
Finding Genius Podcast
Finding Genius Podcast
Richard Jacobs
Finding Balance: Microbiome and Cancer Research with Mahmoud Ghannoum
Could a saliva swab detect cancer presence? Researchers are closer than ever to using such noninvasive biomarker tests as diagnostic tools. Why? Well, it's all about balance, even at the smallest level. Researcher Mahmoud Ghannoum joins Richard to discuss the interactions of the human microbiome. Listen and learn * What he's found through studies on cancer and digestive health regarding microbiome species abundance and richness, * Why biofilms result from a particular microbiome combination and how his research has found ways to inhibit these films for Crohn's disease patients, and * How these findings can be used to generate probiotics and bio therapeutics to address health and disease and a healthy microbiome for cancer therapy. Mahmoud Ghannoum is a professor in the Department of Pathology and Dermatology with the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University. He also started a company called Biohm Health, which uses microbiology to develop therapeutics for human microbiome health based on gut microbiome research. Microbiome communities live all over us and inside of us, he says, and he researches how they impact our health. He explains that the microbiome is made up of bacterial and fungal communities. The balance between pathogenic and healthy species and the interactions between each community has dynamic health implications, which is why scientist are connecting healthy microbiomes and cancer prevention. When these communities are out of balance, scientist call this dysbiosis. His extensive studies on tongue cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma showed a connection between cancer and the microbiota. The species diversity and richness of bacteria and fungi both decreased in tumor groups. In the case of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, he was also able to look at metabolites and found high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate, which means this chemical can serve as a biomarker of disease, enabling noninvasive diagnosis. In 2016, he also published a well-known study showing how pathogenic bacteria and fungi in microbiomes interact and secrete polysaccharides that form biofilms in the guts of Crohn's disease patients. He's developing a therapy to remove these biofilms by inhibiting the hyphae growth of a candida species. He continues to research effective ways to bring health through microbiome balance. For more information, see biohmhealth.com. Available on Apple Podcasts: apple.co/2Os0myK
33 min
Emergency Medical Minute
Emergency Medical Minute
Emergency Medical Minute
Podcast 618: Treating Opiate Side Effects
Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: * Majority of patients experience side effects while taking opioids * Most common include nausea/vomiting, puriitis, constipation; more severe and less common include respiratory depression, addiction and overdose * Opiates can cause nausea, but ondansetron (Zofran) is the wrong treatment because it’s not antidopaminergic. Instead consider using metoclopramide (Reglan), olanzapine (Zyprexa), or haloperidol (Haldol) * Itching from opiates isn’t histamine mediated so hydroxyzine (Atarax) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl) aren’t effective - oddly ondansetron may help with itching. * Constipation is best treated with promotility agents like Senna, rather than stool softeners References Rogers E, Mehta S, Shengelia R, Reid MC. Four Strategies for Managing Opioid-Induced Side Effects in Older Adults. Clin Geriatr. 2013 Apr;21(4): PMID: 25949094; PMCID: PMC4418642. Farmer AD, Holt CB, Downes TJ, Ruggeri E, Del Vecchio S, De Giorgio R. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of opioid-induced constipation. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018 Mar;3(3):203-212. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30008-6. PMID: 29870734. Summarized by Jackson Roos, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.
4 min
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