By popular demand Laszlo finally introduces the Nanjing Massacre. This is a very emotional, controversial and sensitive subject for a whole lot of reasons. Over the next two episodes Laszlo will review material from past episodes to discuss the lead-up to the Massacre. Then in Part 2 the actual event itself as well as the story of the Nanjing Safety Zone and some of the foreigners who became eyewitnesses to the horrors of the Nanjing Massacre. It's also referred to as the Nanking Massacre and the Rape of Nanking.
TERMS FROM THIS EPISODE:
Rape of Nanking Nánjīng Dà Túshā 南京大屠杀 (Japanese 南京大虐杀) Also referred to as the Nanjing (Nanking) Massacre.
Zēng Guófán 曾国藩 1811-1872 Viceroy of Zhili, founder of the Xiang Army that helped put down the Taiping Rebellion.
Zhào Qīzhèng 赵启正 PRC official who has mostly been associated with news organizations.
Kublai Khan 忽必烈 Yuan Dynasty founder and grandson of Chinggiz Khan
Zhāng Chúnrú 张纯如 Iris Chang 1968-2004, American writer.
Honda Katsuichi 本多勝 Japanese journalist and writer who wrote extensively on the Rape of Nanking.
Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarian (Japanese 攘夷勅命 Sonnō Jōi)
Zūnwáng Rǎngyí 尊王攘夷 The Mandarin version of the above phrase.
Lǐ Hóngzhāng 李鸿章 1823-1901 Successor to Zeng Guofan, top late Qing era diplomat
Treaty of Shimonoseki 下关条约 Signed 1895 at conclusion of 1st Sino-Japanese war
Zhāng Zuòlín 张作霖 Warlord of Manchuria from 1922 - 1928.
Prime Minister Hamaguchi Osachi 濱口雄幸 Japanese Prime Minister 1929-1931
Jiǔyībā 九一八 The Mukden Incident of September 18, 1931
Manchukuo (Mǎnzhōuguó) 满洲国 Lasted from 1932 to 1945. Puppet state in Manchuria
Pǔ Yí 溥仪 The last Qing Emperor, also known as the Xuantong 宣统帝Emperor. Emperor of Manchukuo.
Prime Minister Inukai Tsuyoshi 犬養毅 Japanese prime Minster from 1931-1932.
Héběi 河北 Northern province of China, where Beijing and Tianjin are geographically located.
Shānxī 山西 Northern Province of China, capital at Taiyuan
Shāndōng 山东 Coastal northern province
Tiānjìn 天津 Northern city in China just east of Beijing
Lúshān 庐山 Mountain resort in Jiangxi popular with Nationalist and Communist leaders as a meeting place.
Jiāngxī 江西 Province in China, capital at Nanchang
Zhōu Dynasty 周朝 Ancient dynasty of China
Bái Chóngxǐ 白崇禧 NRA general, close ally to Li Zongren
Lǐ Zōngrén 李宗仁 Major military and political figure during the 1920's and 30's. Had a stormy relationship with Chiang Kai-shek.
Chóngqìng 重庆 City in Sichuan province, now a stand-alone municipality
Wǔhàn 武汉 City in Hubei on the Yangzi River
Lǎobǎixìng 老百姓 The people, in this case the Chinese people, (the old 100 surnames).
Jiāng-Zhè 江浙区 region Abbreviation for the Jiangsu-Zhejiang region
Yamaguchi Tsutomu 山口 彊 1916-2010 A survivor of both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings August 6 and 9, 1945.
Nánchāng 南昌 Capital city of Jiangxi province
Táng Shēngzhì 唐生智 Nationalist general who was tasked with defending Nanjing
Sūn Quán 孙权 Three Kingdoms era leader of the State of Sun Wu.
Matsui Iwane 松井石根 Imperial Japanese Army Commander-in-chief for the Shanghai-Nanjing Region
Nakajima Kesago 中岛今朝吾 Lt. Gen. in the Imperial Japanese Army
Yanagawa Heisuke 柳川平助 General in the Imperial Japanese Army
Sūzhōu 苏州 City in Jiangsu province renowned for a thousand things
Emperor Hirohito (Emperor Showa 昭和天皇) Emperor of Japan 1926-1989
Prince Asaka Yasuhiko 朝香宮鳩彦王 1887-1981 General in the Imperial Japanese Army, uncle of Emperor Hirohito.
Ānhuī 安徽 Province in central China