CHP-255-The History of Xinjiang Part 12
Play episode · 46 min

In this final 12th episode we'll look at Xinjiang from 1885 to 1949.  More unrest, well intentions gone wrong, Soviet subterfuge and two East Turkestan Republics.  And after all the events that happened going back to Qianlong, Xinjiang finally goes out out with a whimper in 1949 with the Communist PLA takeover.  We'll look at the rogues gallery of Xinjiang governors / warlords who ran the place from 1912 to 1949. I hope you enjoyed this twelve part series. If you want to learn more you're in luck. The amount of books (including serious academic works), scholarly papers, web resources and videos that are out there, should be able to satisfy you to no end.

Then & Now: Philosophy, History & Politics
Then & Now: Philosophy, History & Politics
Then & Now
Foucault: Nietzsche, Genealogy, History
In his 1977 essay, “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History”, Michel Foucault criticizes the traditional historical method and makes an argument for why a ‘genealogical’ approach is important. But what is genealogy? It’s a history of us. Of the attitudes and dispositions we embody today. The way we approach and do things. These things often seem like they don’t have a history, that they’re human nature. That they’re normal, eternal, unchangeable. Genealogy attempts to uncover how they’ve changed over time – how there are different ways of approaching them. It uncovers how they’re not the way they are because they’ve gradually improved; they’re not part of an inevitable linear progression through history. They’re contingent. Genealogy often examines attitudes, beliefs, presuppositions. – Morality, discipline, sexuality. It addresses a traditional history that assumes simple movement forward over time. It draws out, uncovers, and critically examines the origins of a specific conception of what’s morally good, or the source of a particular way of disciplining societal criminality, or the genesis of attitudes about what it means to be a feminine woman. Foucault is influenced by Nietzsche, the first person to show that morality – our ideas of what’s good and bad - has a history, has changed over time. He is searching for the 'origins' of the genealogical method in Nietzsche. Then & Now is FAN-FUNDED! Support me on Patreon and pledge as little as $1 per video:
14 min
Social Science Bites
Social Science Bites
SAGE Publishing
Alondra Nelson on Genetic Testing
Sociologist Alondra Nelson calls it “root-seeking” – individuals wanting to know their ethnic background. Knowing who your people were as a way to know who you are verges on being a human need – witness the Hebrew Bible or the carefully tended genealogies of royal houses. In her own seeking, Nelson has studied the rise and use of direct-to-consumer genetic testing as made popular by companies like 23andme, and AncestryDNA. Those firms and others promise to decode, at least in part, stories found in your own chromosomal makeup. As Nelson achieved other career milestones, including being the current president of the Social Science Research Council and the Harold F. Linder Professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, she’s also spent close to two decades unraveling the story of consumer genetic testing, accounts of which resulted in two of her books, Genetics and the Unsettled Past: The Collision of DNA, Race, and History and the new The Social Life of DNA: Race, Reparations, and Reconciliation after the Genome. In this Social Science Bites podcast, Nelson describes her particular interest in those root-seekers whose journeys usually aren’t captured in antebellum church registries or in tales passed down in the same hamlet through countless generations. She's focused on the descendants of people 'stolen from Africa' in the slave trade, who make up so much of the African diaspora. In surveys and later in extensive interviewing among the African-American community, Nelson found a great deal of interest among Black Americans in DNA testing despite some historical misgivings. “Marginalized communities, and in the context of the U.S., African-Americans in particular, have a very understandable historic distrust of genetic research and medical experimentation,” she explains to interviewer David Edmonds. “So the fact that African Americans were early adopters in this space is surprising given that history. What’s not surprising is the genealogical aspiration that many African Americans are trying to fulfill – a profound and pronounced and often very living and present longing sense of loss and longing about identity, original family names, of points and places on the continent of Africa where one’s ancestors might have come from.” She also learned, as her investigations branched out from surveys of the genealogical community to interviews with test-takers, that “getting the test results was really the beginning of the endeavor, rather than the end. “What in the world did you think you could do with this information, besides filing it away in a drawer and telling your family that we now know that we have Ibo, Yoruba, whatever the test provided for ancestry?” Answering that question meant Nelson’s own approach must evolve. “That transformed the methodology to a kind of ethnographic methodology that I call the ‘social life of DNA’ in which I followed what happened with the test, what happened with the information, what did they think that these genetic inferences could do with the world. That really opens up a whole other space of thinking about the importance of genetic testing.” Part of that space she explored is uniquely American. For much of (White) America, one’s ethnic ties to the ‘old country’ – to be Irish or Italian, say -- are a linchpin of identity. “That’s not been available to African Americans,” she notes, whose roots are assigned to an amorphous blob of sub-Saharan Africa, since specific roots were eradicated when now enslaved peoples arrived in the New World. “People lost their given names, lost the languages of their foremothers and forefathers,” Nelson said. “[P]art of the work of what slave-making entailed was taking people from often very different places on the continent of Africa, with different languages, cultural norms, religious backgrounds and to create out of a multicultural and multiethnic diverse group of people of different backgrounds a ‘caste’.” The dark-skinned newcomers were henceforth categorized as a race, and that race was assigned the caste of enslaved person. Genetic testing, in turn opens up that ‘Black box’ of lost identity and reveals what place and culture forebearers were likely ripped from. (Nelson, for example, had her own code analyzed and discovered a component of her heritage was from what is now Cameroon.) In this podcast, Nelson also talks about how Black Americans may respond to their growing awareness of their specific genetic identities, how this might impact the reparations debate in the United states, and why people are primed to be emotional at reveals of their genetic heritage. In addition to her two books on genetic testing, Nelson writes extensively at the nexus of science, technology, and social inequality. Her publications, for example, include the books Body and Soul: The Black Panther Party and the Fight against Medical Discrimination and Technicolor: Race, Technology, and Everyday Life. She is also editor of “Afrofuturism,” an influential special issue of Social Text.
25 min
The Panpsycast Philosophy Podcast
The Panpsycast Philosophy Podcast
Jack Symes | Andrew Horton, Oliver Marley, Gregory Miller
Episode 87, Confucianism (Part IV - Further Analysis and Discussion)
Introduction One day when Jack, Olly, and Andy were accompanying Confucius, Confucius said: “Why don’t each of you tell me what you have your mind set on.” Andy was the first to reply, he said he wanted to be as profitable and the prestigious as the Duke of Zhou. Once he had profit and prestige, he could have all things his heart desired.   Jack, having suspected that Andy had given a poor response, said he wished to cultivate humanness by helping others to help themselves. He wanted to allow others to see how their selfishness prevented them from becoming truly human and from experiencing true joy.   Finally, Olly simply responded that he wished not to make any promises he couldn’t keep but that he hoped to learn from the ancients, respect the roles he had been assigned, and care for his friends and family.   Confucius sat quietly for a moment and then said: “Andy, you have mistaken what made the Duke of Zhou so well pleased. Jack, you have said the right words but for the wrong reason. Olly, you can learn from the ancients but also from your less capable friends, see if you share any of their qualities.” Contents Part I. The Life of Confucius Part II. The Analects Part III. Practices Part IV. Further Analysis and Discussion Links The Analects (pdf). The Analects (Oxford Classics). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Confucius. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Confucius. Confucius from the Heart, Yu Dan (Pan Macmillan). The Great Courses, The Analects of Confucius (Audible). Confucius: A Guide for the Perplexed, Yong Huang (Bloomsbury). Confucianism: A Very Short Introduction, Daniel Gardner (Oxford).
1 hr 1 min
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