2021 年 10 月 24 日 22:55
烏茲別克斯坦總統沙夫卡特·米爾濟約耶夫於 2021 年 10 月 24 日在烏茲別克斯坦塔什幹舉行的總統選舉期間在投票站投票。
根據截至晚上 10 點計算的數字，約有 1630 萬人投票，佔該國合格選民的 80.8%。高投票率被視為該國剛剛起步的民主力量的證明。
中央選舉委員會主席 Zayniddin Nizamkhodjaev 在塔什干設立的一個特別新聞中心宣布選民投票率時說，週日的選舉是“我們人民的歷史性成就之一”。
2021 年 10 月 24 日在烏茲別克斯坦塔什幹舉行的總統選舉期間，一名選民在投票站走近展示候選人信息的董事會，其中包括烏茲別克斯坦現任總統沙夫卡特·米爾濟約耶夫。（圖片來源：STRINGER/REUTERS）
Nizamkhodjaev 說，超過 971 名當地和國際大眾媒體代表報導了選舉過程。
20 歲的大學生 Mohiso Kalollova 和 21 歲的 Kumush Tilovoba 是在該國首都塔什幹排隊投票的人之一。
22 歲的 Shaboddin Alievey 表示，投票是對“決定我們未來”的民主的個人承諾。他說他支持總統。
著眼於 COVID-19 大流行，在測量體溫並用消毒劑噴灑手之前，任何人都不能進入投票站。
負責塔什幹投票站之一的 Bibsora Khasanova 表示，選舉已經進行了 90 天。
他們包括 64 歲的米爾濟約耶夫；Narzulio Oblomurodov，46 歲，生態黨成員；以及 46 歲的阿利舍爾·科迪羅夫 (Alisher Qodirov)，他是該國民族復興民主黨 (Milliy Tiklanish Party) 的成員。另外兩名候選人是正義社會民主黨的 62 歲的 Bahram Abduhalimov；60 歲的人民民主黨成員馬克蘇達·瓦里索娃 (Maqsuda Varisova)。
High turnout in Uzbekistan's election, seen as victory for democracy
Democracy, not his presidency, was the focal point of the conversation when the country headed to the polls.
By TOVAH LAZAROFF
OCTOBER 24, 2021 22:55
Uzbekistan's President Shavkat Mirziyoyev casts a ballot at a polling station during a presidential election in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, October 24, 2021.
(photo credit: Uzbek Presidential Press Service/Handout via REUTERS)
TASHKENT – Uzbek President Shavkat Mirziyoyev is expected to retain his seat when election results are announced late Monday afternoon.
Democracy, not his presidency, was the focal point of the conversation when the country headed to the polls on Sunday.
Some 16.3 million people cast their ballots, or 80.8% of the country’s eligible voters, based on numbers calculated by 10 p.m. The high voter turnout was viewed as a testament to the strength of the country’s fledgling democracy.
The largely secular Muslim country, once in the Soviet Bloc, has increasingly turned westward since Mirziyoyev came to power five years ago. It is a marked contrast with neighboring Afghanistan, which fell to the Taliban this summer.
Sunday’s elections were “one of the historical achievements of our people,” Central Elections Committee chairman Zayniddin Nizamkhodjaev said as he announced the voter turnout at a special press center set up in Tashkent.
A voter walks near a board displaying information about candidates, including Uzbek incumbent President Shavkat Mirziyoyev, at a polling station during a presidential election in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, October 24, 2021. (credit: STRINGER/ REUTERS)
The room immediately broke into applause, even though no news had been given about who the victor was.
This shows that “Uzbekistan has moved forward to the new democratic society,” Nizamkhodjaev said, adding that the turnout was “a great step” and a sign that “political activism is growing.”
“We deeply congratulate our people on behalf of the Central Elections Commission,” he said.
The election process was covered by more than 971 local and international mass-media representatives, Nizamkhodjaev said.
Among those in the country for the elections were a small number of Israeli journalists, including from The Jerusalem Post, flown in at the expense of the Uzbek government as part of its endeavor to highlight the country’s democracy.
It was a theme that was prevalent among the small number of voters interviewed by the Post in Tashkent. When asked why they voted, they spoke about democracy rather than any one specific issue.
University students Mohiso Kalollova, 20, and Kumush Tilovoba, 21, were among those who had lined up to vote in the country’s capital of Tashkent.
It is important to vote “to build our future,” said Kalollova, who along with her friend Tilovoba planned to cast their ballot for Mirziyoyev because they felt he had the best plan for the future.
Shaboddin Alievey, 22, said voting was a personal commitment to democracy that “defines our future.” He said he supported the president.
Outside a separate station, gray-haired Yakue Mahmumov sat on a wooden bench, wearing a light-blue mask.
“It is our national responsibility” to vote, he said. Unlike the younger voters, he was tight-lipped about how he had voted. Pasted onto his jacket was a round sticker with the country’s flag that said, “I voted, have you?”
On the porch of the small polling station was a traditional Uzbek tapchan sofa. Made of wood, it is the size of a king-size bed, with cushions for seating and a table in the middle with tea, grapes, cookies and nuts.
With an eye to the COVID-19 pandemic, no one could enter the polling station until their temperature was taken and their hand sprayed with disinfectant.
Bibsora Khasanova, who was in charge of one of the Tashkent polling stations, said the elections had been 90 days in the making.
A list of the voters eligible to use her station was printed on computer paper and hung on the wall.
Seats were set aside in the room where the ballots were cast so that observers from the five parties could view the voting to ensure its integrity. Seats were also available for international observers.
Voters filled out paper ballots and then placed them in a clear plastic box.
Photos of all five candidates were posted on the walls of polling stations.
They included Mirziyoyev, 64; Narzulio Oblomurodov, 46, of the Ecological Party; and Alisher Qodirov, 46, of the Milliy Tiklanish Party, which is the country’s National Revival Democratic Party. The other two candidates were Bahram Abduhalimov, 62, of the Justice Social Democratic Party; and Maqsuda Varisova, 60, of the People’s Democratic Party.
The four candidates running against Mirziyoyev have been nominated by parties that support the president.
A report by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe prior to the election said the concern was about who was eligible to run, rather than the transparency of the process.
“Eligibility to stand as a candidate is limited, including by length of residency and official language-proficiency requirements,” the report said. “Only registered political parties can nominate a candidate, and independent candidates are not allowed to run.”
Critics have said there was a lack of crucial debate. Bloggers and media commentators criticized senior officials and raised sensitive issues, but they never targeted the president himself.
In Uzbekistan, the president is limited to two five-year terms.
Mirziyoyev’s predicted victory will allow him to deepen his largely successful reform campaign and will likely lead to Uzbekistan opening up further to foreign trade and investment, while retaining a highly centralized political system.
He has rebuilt the resource-rich country’s ties with both Russia and the West, which had become strained under his predecessor, Islam Karimov, Uzbekistan’s first post-independence president.
Mirziyoyev has also lifted some restrictions on religious practices, reined in the powerful security services and oversaw a release of some political prisoners who had ended up behind bars due to Karimov’s zero-tolerance approach toward dissent.
In addition, he has pledged to cut poverty through rapid economic growth and gradually decentralize decision-making by devolving some powers to district councils.
Reuters contributed to this report.
2021 年 10 月 24 日 18:48
2021 年 10 月 18 日，在美國華盛頓特區國務院舉行會議之前，國際原子能機構總幹事拉斐爾·馬里亞諾·格羅西（Rafael Mariano Grossi）在本傑明·富蘭克林廳與美國國務卿安東尼·布林肯（框外）交談。
（照片來源：MANDEL NGAN/POOL VIA REUTERS）
IAEA 總幹事拉斐爾·格羅西 (Rafael Grossi) 在周末接受 NBC 新聞採訪時說，對伊朗核計劃的監測“不再完整”。
儘管他在 9 月中旬與伊朗新總統易卜拉欣·賴西（6 月當選）組建的伊朗新政府的低級別代表進行了首次會晤，但他在採訪中透露，他仍然與伊朗新任外長沒有接觸。侯賽因·阿米爾-阿卜杜拉希安部長。
EBRAHIM RAISI 抵達德黑蘭的一個投票站，在上週的總統選舉中投票，他贏得了選舉。（來源：MAJID ASGARIPOUR/WANA（西亞新聞社）通過路透社）
格羅西公開表達對德黑蘭的不滿意義重大，因為 IAEA 通常試圖將任何衝突保密，以免動搖外交船。
平壤在 2009 年將 IAEA 檢查員驅逐出該國，幾年之內，朝鮮已經開發了核武器庫。
儘管拜登政府幾個月來一直在發出聲音，稱伊朗以恢復 2015 年 JCPOA 核協議的限制來換取美國解除制裁的時間已經不多了，但迄今為止還沒有提到最後期限。
歐盟官員表現出最大的耐心，有些人明確表示，如果伊朗拒絕重返 JCPOA 或拖延進程，同時繼續其不斷升級的核違規行為，他們沒有“B 計劃”。
2021 年 7 月 5 日，德黑蘭附近的 Karaj Special Road 發生倉庫火災（圖片來源：VAHID AHMADI/TASNIM NEWS AGENCY）
與此同時，伊朗表示它有權拒絕原子能機構進入卡拉吉設施，因為以色列在 6 月的一次襲擊中對其進行了破壞。
Monitoring of Iran's nuclear developments ‘no longer intact’ - IAEA chief
Grossi’s public airing of grievances with Tehran is significant: The IAEA tries to keep any conflicts under wraps so as not to rock the diplomatic boat.
By YONAH JEREMY BOB
OCTOBER 24, 2021 18:48
International Atomic Energy Agency Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi speaks with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken (off frame) in the Benjamin Franklin Room ahead of a meeting at the State Department in Washington, DC, US October 18, 2021.
(photo credit: MANDEL NGAN/POOL VIA REUTERS)
Monitoring of Iran’s nuclear program is “no longer intact,” IAEA Director-General Rafael Grossi told NBC News in an interview over the weekend.
He did not mean that the Islamic Republic has completely boycotted his agency’s nuclear inspectors, but rather its continued refusal to grant access to cameras at the key facility of Karaj means the world may never be “able to reconstruct the picture” of what the Iranians are doing.
Maybe just as crucially, Grossi said Tehran has thrown up roadblocks in developing basic communications.
Although in mid-September he had first meetings with lower-level representatives of the new Iranian government put in place by new Iranian President Ebrahim Raisi (elected in June), he revealed in the interview that he still has had no contact with new Iranian Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian.
“I have never spoken to the new foreign minister,” Grossi said. “I hope to be able to have the opportunity to meet with him soon because it’s very important… so when there is a problem, when there is misunderstanding, when there is a disagreement, we can talk about it. I used to have it before, and I would assume” that would be the normal thing.
EBRAHIM RAISI arrives at a polling station in Tehran to cast his vote in last week’s presidential election, which he won. (credit: MAJID ASGARIPOUR/WANA (WEST ASIA NEWS AGENCY) VIA REUTERS)
Grossi’s public airing of grievances with Tehran is significant because the IAEA normally tries to keep any conflicts under wraps so as not to rock the diplomatic boat.
However, with more than four months since the last round of nuclear negotiations – and ongoing signs from the Raisi government that it may drag out restarting talks for months and reaching any deal for an even much longer period – his patience appeared to be running thin.
Trying to present additional nuanced messages, Grossi said he had “no indication” that Iran was currently racing forward to a bomb, but that the world should beware of the North Korean scenario.
Pyongyang threw IAEA inspectors out of the country in 2009, and within years, the North had already developed an arsenal of nuclear weapons.
“The case of the DPRK should remind us of what may happen if diplomatic efforts go wrong,” Grossi said. “It’s a clear example. It’s an indication. It’s a beacon. If diplomacy fails, you may be confronted with a situation that would have enormous political impact in the Middle East and beyond.”
Although the Biden administration has made noises for several months about time running out for Iran to return to the 2015 JCPOA nuclear deal’s limits in exchange for the US lifting sanctions, there has been no deadline mentioned to date.
Similarly, while Israeli officials have sounded the alarm more impatiently than American officials, they have also refrained from imposing any deadline.
EU officials have shown the most patience, some explicitly indicating that they have no “plan B” if Iran refuses to return to the JCPOA or drags out the process while continuing its escalating nuclear violations.
Russia recently gave a first public criticism of Raisi for the slow pace at which his government is reviewing the issue, as opposed to a quick return to the negotiating table. But Moscow and Beijing have generally been viewed as supporting Iran’s positions when in conflict with the West.
Warehouse fire along Karaj Special Road near Tehran, July 5, 2021 (credit: VAHID AHMADI/TASNIM NEWS AGENCY)
Meanwhile, Iran has said it has the right to decline IAEA access to the Karaj facility because Israel sabotaged it during an attack in June.
Jerusalem has not taken formal responsibility, but The Jerusalem Post previously validated Iran’s claims of Israeli involvement.
沙特阿拉伯希望成為氫能的主要供應商 - 能源部長
沙特阿拉伯是世界上最大的石油出口國，計劃到 2030 年生產和出口約 400 萬噸氫氣。
2021 年 10 月 24 日 13:38
2021 年 6 月 27 日，沙特阿美公司在沙特阿拉伯宰赫蘭科技谷科技園展示氫汽車技術的媒體之旅中，一名男子在加氫站為汽車加油。
這位部長補充說，世界上最大的石油出口國打算到 2030 年生產和出口約 400 萬噸氫氣。
2021 年 6 月 27 日，沙特阿美公司在沙特阿拉伯宰赫蘭科技谷科學園展示氫汽車技術的媒體之旅中，一名男子在加氫站為汽車加油。（來源：REUTERS/HAJER ABDULMOHSIN）
Saudi Arabia wants to be top supplier of hydrogen - energy minister
Saudi Arabia, the world's biggest oil exporter intends to produce and export something within the neighborhood of about 4 million tons of hydrogen by 2030.
OCTOBER 24, 2021 13:38
A man refuels a car at Hydrogen refuelling station during Saudi Aramco's media trip to demonstrate Hydrogen automotive technology at Techno Valley Science Park in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, June 27, 2021.
(photo credit: REUTERS/HAJER ABDULMOHSIN)
Saudi Arabia wants to be the biggest supplier of hydrogen, the country's Energy Minister Prince Abdulaziz bin Salman al-Saud said on Sunday.
The world's biggest oil exporter intends to produce and export something within the neighborhood of about 4 million tons of hydrogen by 2030, the minister added.
The chief executive of Aramco, Amin Nasser, said earlier this year the Saudi Arabian state oil producer is looking for off-take agreements for hydrogen in its key markets to expand its output and sees strong potential for growth.
A man refuels a car at Hydrogen refuelling station during Saudi Aramco's media trip to demonstrate Hydrogen automotive technology at Techno Valley Science Park in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, June 27, 2021. (credit: REUTERS/HAJER ABDULMOHSIN)
There are growing international calls for reductions in fossil-fuel investment and for the focus to shift towards renewable energy sources.
The minister also said the kingdom plans to manufacture electric cars.
以色列的大屠殺倖存者將獲得 2000 萬新謝克爾的補助
大約 3,700 名從德國政府領取養老金的大屠殺倖存者現在將有資格獲得增加的付款。
2021 年 10 月 24 日 19:04
（圖片來源：MARC ISRAEL SELLEM）
在與德國財政部談判後，政府已為生活在以色列的大屠殺倖存者每年額外獲得 2000 萬新謝克爾的款項。內閣週日批准了該協議。
大約 3,700 名從德國政府領取養老金的大屠殺倖存者將有資格獲得增加的付款。談判由社會平等和養老金領取者部和大屠殺倖存者權利管理局進行。
所有有資格領取德國養老金的人每月將額外獲得 100 歐元，根據當前匯率約為 373 新謝克爾，每年約為 4,470 新謝克爾。
Israel's Holocaust survivors to be supplemented NIS 20 million
Some 3,700 Holocaust survivors who receive pensions from the German government will now be eligible for the increased payments.
By JEREMY SHARON
OCTOBER 24, 2021 19:04
Illustrative photo of Israeli money
(photo credit: MARC ISRAEL SELLEM)
The government has secured an extra NIS 20 million in annual payments for Holocaust survivors living in Israel following negotiations with the German Finance Ministry. The cabinet approved the agreement on Sunday.
Some 3,700 Holocaust survivors who receive pensions from the German government will be eligible for the increased payments. The negotiations were conducted by the Social Equality and Pensioners Ministry and the Authority for the Rights of Holocaust Survivors.
All those eligible for German pensions will receive an extra €100 per month, about NIS 373 according to the current exchange rate, which would be around NIS 4,470 a year.
In addition, another €500,000 will be distributed annually to Holocaust survivors suffering from dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitively degenerative disorders.
The Authority for the Rights of Holocaust Survivors had asked the German government for additional support because of economic and mental-health hardships suffered by survivors due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Social equality minister Merav Cohen submits her resignation from the parliament to Knesset Speaker Yariv Levin. (credit: Courtesy)
“The experience of lockdowns within four walls that we all experienced during the coronavirus period opened old wounds for many Holocaust survivors, who experienced lockdown and social isolation as children during the Holocaust,” Social Equality and Pensioners Minister Meirav Cohen said. “In order to assist in the mental-health treatment of those old wounds, and in light of the deteriorating economic situation of elderly Holocaust survivors as a result of the coronavirus crisis, we were able to obtain the assistance of the German government and get additional funds through the cooperation that exists between the governments, and I give my thanks and appreciation to the German government for that.”
The increased German assistance is in addition to an extra NIS 300m. the current government has added to the state budget for the welfare of Holocaust survivors, as well as an increase of NIS 1.5 billion for income support, which Holocaust survivors whose monthly income falls below certain levels will be able to claim, she said.
“We will work day and night so that the elderly in Israel, in general, and Holocaust survivors, specifically, can live in the dignity they deserve,” Cohen said.
將允許另外 9,000 名巴勒斯坦工人進入以色列
2021 年 10 月 24 日 19:25
巴勒斯坦勞工於 5 月通過希伯倫附近的一個檢查站前往以色列工作。
巴勒斯坦領土政府活動協調員周日宣布，以色列本週將再向 9,000 名巴勒斯坦人發放工作許可證。
根據今年政府決定將巴勒斯坦工人的配額增加 15,000 名，來自猶太和撒馬利亞在建築行業工作的巴勒斯坦人將被允許在主權以色列工作。
2021 年 10 月 19 日，以色列國防部長本尼·甘茨 (Benny Gantz) 出席在耶路撒冷以色列議會以色列議會舉行的國防和外交事務委員會會議。（圖片來源：YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH90）
COGAT 少將 Rassan Alian 在 8 月份表示，“經濟穩定是維護該地區安全的關鍵。”
除了 15,000 份建築許可證外，還將向在酒店業工作的巴勒斯坦人發放另外 1,000 份許可證。
目前約有 120,000 名巴勒斯坦人持有以色列工作許可證，其中 30,000 人在猶太和撒馬利亞的以色列城鎮工作。
9,000 additional Palestinian workers to be allowed into Israel
Israelis licensed to employ Palestinians can file applications for permits for more workers this week.
By LAHAV HARKOV
OCTOBER 24, 2021 19:25
PALESTINIAN LABORERS head to work in Israel through a checkpoint near Hebron, in May.
(photo credit: MUSSA QAWASMA/REUTERS)
Israel will grant 9,000 more Palestinians work permits this week, the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories announced on Sunday.
The Palestinians from Judea and Samaria working in the construction industry will be allowed to work in sovereign Israel pursuant to a government decision this year to increase the quota of Palestinian workers by 15,000.
COGAT said the additional Palestinians will be permitted to work in Israel “shortly, in accordance with the decision of the political echelon.”
Israelis licensed to employ Palestinians can file applications for permits for more workers this week.
The cabinet decision, made in August, to increase the number of Palestinians working in Israel came in light of the government’s aim to strengthen the Palestinian Authority’s economy and the quality of life for Palestinians in Judea and Samaria.
Israeli minister of Defense Benny Gantz attend a Defense and Foreign Affairs Committee meeting at the Knesset, the Israeli parliament in Jerusalem on October 19, 2021. (credit: YONATAN SINDEL/FLASH90)
Defense Minister Benny Gantz tweeted at the time that “this is an important step that will strengthen the Palestinian and Israeli economies and our shared interests.”
COGAT Maj.-Gen. Rassan Alian said in August that “economic stability is the key to preserve the security in the region.”
In addition to the 15,000 for construction, another 1,000 permits will be given to Palestinians working in the hotel industry.
Some 120,000 Palestinians currently have Israeli work permits, 30,000 of which are for working in Israeli towns in Judea and Samaria.
The Israel Builders Association said that field of construction is short on workers and the decision "will allow a dramatic increase in building in the coming year. The amount authorized is the minimum necessary to reach the amount of construction the government set, of at least 70,000 new homes each year."
2021 年 10 月 24 日 20:09
以色列南部的一座 55 兆瓦太陽能發電廠。
當 19 歲的法國物理學家 Edmond Becquerel 在 1839 年發現，通過在浸入導電溶液的電極上照射光，他可以產生電流時，他可能從未想過他的實驗會成為最常用的實驗之一的基礎。當今可再生能源的來源 - 太陽能。
上海一座燃煤電廠附近的監控攝像頭（圖片來源：REUTERS/ALY SONG/FILE PHOTO）
儘管使用可再生能源比使用化石燃料具有明顯的優勢，但它在全球的使用仍然不如煤炭、石油或其他不可再生能源的使用普遍。Compare the Market 於 2020 年 1 月發布的一項研究顯示，德國在使用可再生能源方面處於領先地位，英國位居第二，瑞典位居第三。美國落後於澳大利亞和土耳其，排在第 10 位。
許多人認為可再生能源是未來，隨著世界努力防止全球氣溫上升超過 1.5 攝氏度，轉向可再生能源似乎是確保成功的最有效方法。今年 8 月發布的政府間氣候變化專門委員會(IPCC) 報告顯示，有證據表明溫室氣體排放導致全球氣溫自 1850-1900 年以來上升了約 1.1 攝氏度。該報告還顯示證據表明，雖然人類活動對氣候造成了重大破壞，但現在影響另一個方向的變化還為時不晚。如果 CO2 停止釋放到大氣中，情況可能會在到達不歸路之前穩定下來。
限制溫室氣體排放和實現二氧化碳淨零排放的答案當然是可再生能源。迄今為止，至少有 140 個國家承諾實現碳中和，其中大部分承諾都集中在 2050 年左右。
迄今為止，不丹和蘇里南這兩個國家已經實現了碳中和，實際上被認為是碳負的——這意味著它們去除的碳比排放的多。下一個有望實現其目標的國家是烏拉圭，它已承諾到 2030 年實現同樣的目標。緊隨其後的是芬蘭、奧地利、冰島、德國和瑞典，它們都希望到 2045 年實現目標。
任何國家承諾實現碳中和的最晚日期是 2060 年，烏克蘭、哈薩克斯坦和中國都打算在近 40 年後實現他們的目標。最近，沙特阿拉伯和巴林也紛紛效仿，也希望在 2060 年之前實現他們的目標。
然而，以色列是少數幾個尚未承諾碳中和的國家之一，而是選擇了到 2050 年將溫室氣體排放量從 2015 年的水平減少 85% 的計劃。足夠重要。
太陽能來自太陽能或光伏 (PV) 電池，由矽樹脂或其他材料製成，可將陽光直接轉化為電能。然後通過小規模的屋頂面板或大規模的太陽能農場將電力分配到該地區的家庭和企業。
在全球能源回顧國際能源機構（IEA）在2021年發布的顯示在正確的方向積極擺動，當談到在不可再生能源的利用可再生能源。審查顯示，2020 年全球二氧化碳排放量下降了 5.8%，這是有史以來最大的降幅。然而，IEA 還預測 2021 年將增長 4.8%，因為下降可能是由於 COVID-19 大流行，這意味著它有望反彈。
聯合國氣候變化會議 (COP26) 網站指出，為了實現《巴黎協定》中設定的目標並防止地球升溫 1.5 攝氏度，轉向可再生能源和遠離化石燃料的步伐必須比氣候變化快五倍。現在的速度。他們說，為了做到這一點，各國必須在 2030 年或 2040 年之前停止使用煤電，具體取決於國家的經濟狀況，並大幅增加使用可再生能源生產的清潔能源。
Is renewable energy the answer to the climate crisis?
Renewable energy sources are drawn from natural resources which can be replaced over a relatively short period of time, unlike nonrenewable energy, or fossil fuels.
By SHIRA SILKOFF
OCTOBER 24, 2021 20:09
A 55-MEGAWATT solar power plant in Israel's south.
(photo credit: MOSHE SHAI/FLASH90)
When 19-year-old French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered in 1839 that by shining a light on an electrode dipped in conductive solution he could create an electric current, he likely never imagined that his experiment would become the basis for one of the most commonly used sources of renewable energy today - solar power.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity and it is one of the six most popular renewable energy sources used across the world, along with wind energy, hydro energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy, and biomass energy.
Renewable energy sources are drawn from natural resources which can be replaced over a relatively short period of time, for example, solar power draws energy from the sun, which is not depleted by the use of solar energy. In this way, it differs from non-renewable energy sources, the use of which depletes resources that are not naturally replenishable, or which may take thousands of years to be replenished, such as coal, gas, and oil.
Nonrenewable energy sources have been proven to be dangerous for the environment, due to the carbon dioxide the burning process release into the atmosphere as a byproduct. The CO2 then gets trapped in the atmosphere, and as a result, is the leading cause of climate change and global warming today. Further damage is then done to the environment through methods of extraction such as strip mining, as it leaves the landscape barren and destroys the vegetation in the area, and oil spills.
Renewable energy sources, on the other hand, do not release pollutants into the atmosphere and cannot be depleted. While previously a much more expensive option, renewable energy is becoming more and more cost-effective as technology increases and is relatively cheap to maintain. Most importantly perhaps, in today's climate emergency, is that little to no greenhouse gas emissions have been caused by renewable energy sources.
A surveillance camera is seen near a coal-fired power plant in Shanghai (credit: REUTERS/ALY SONG/FILE PHOTO)
Despite the seemingly obvious advantages to using renewable energy over fossil fuels, its use across the globe is still less common than the use of coal, oil, or other nonrenewable sources. A study released by Compare the Market in January 2020 showed Germany leading the way in the use of renewable energy, with the UK coming second, and Sweden third. The US lagged behind at number 10, below Australia and Turkey.
Renewable energy is seen by many to be the future, and as the world fights to prevent the global temperature from increasing past 1.5c, the switch to renewable energy sources seems to be the most effective way to ensure success. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in August of this year, showed evidence that the emission of greenhouse gasses is responsible for global temperatures rising by approximately 1.1c since 1850-1900. The report also showed evidence that while human action has caused significant damage to the climate, it is not too late to influence change in the other direction. Should CO2 cease to be released into the atmosphere, the situation could stabilize before it reaches the point of no return.
“Stabilizing the climate will require strong, rapid, and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and reaching net-zero CO2 emissions. Limiting other greenhouse gases and air pollutants, especially methane, could have benefits both for health and the climate,” IPCC Working Group I Co-Chair Panmao Zhai said at the time of the report.
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The answer to limiting greenhouse gas emissions and reaching net-zero CO2 emissions is, of course, renewable energy. At least 140 countries to date have pledged to reach carbon neutrality, with most of the commitments being centered around the year 2050.
Two countries to date, Bhutan and Suriname, have achieved carbon neutrality, and are in fact considered carbon-negative - meaning they have removed more carbon than they have emitted. The next country expected to match their goal is Uruguay, which has pledged to do the same by the year 2030. Not far behind are Finland, Austria, Iceland, Germany, and Sweden, all of whom hope to meet their goal by 2045.
The latest date that any country has pledged to achieve carbon neutrality is 2060, with Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and China all aiming to reach their goal almost 40 years from now. Most recently, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain have followed suit, also hoping to hit their goal by 2060.
With China being the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gasses, and Saudi Arabia following close behind, their pledges are significant, and a sign that countries are beginning, albeit slowly, to make the required changes in order to prevent causing irreversible damage to the climate.
Israel, however, is among one of the few countries yet to pledge carbon neutrality, instead opting for a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 85% from 2015 levels by the year 2050. While still a significant step, some feel that it is not significant enough.
As mentioned above, the way to reduce or eliminate carbon emissions is through the use of renewable energy sources, be it solar, wind, hydro or tidal.
But how does each of these work?
Solar energy is sourced using solar or photovoltaic (PV) cells, made from silicone or other materials, which transform sunlight directly into electricity. The electricity is then distributed through rooftop panels on a small scale, or solar farms on a much larger scale, to homes and businesses in the area.
Wind energy is the most commonly used source of renewable energy in the US and is one of the cheapest. Energy is sourced using wind turbines strategically placed in areas with high wind speeds, such as hills or open fields.
Hydro energy follows wind energy as the second most commonly used form of renewable energy and turns fast-moving water into electricity through the use of high-speed turbine blades. However, hydro energy is only renewable if done on a smaller scale. Large hydroelectric plants are considered nonrenewable, as they divert the natural course of water, restricting access for animal populations.
Tidal energy is the newest form of renewable energy and uses tidal barrages, which work in a similar way to traditional dams, in order to harvest energy. However, if not done carefully, these methods can cause harm to wildlife in the surrounding area.
The Global Energy Review released by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for the year 2021 has shown a positive swing in the right direction when it comes to the use of renewable energy over nonrenewable energy sources. The review showed a decline of 5.8% in global CO2 emissions throughout 2020, the largest ever measured decline. However, the IEA also predicted a growth of 4.8% in 2021, as the decline was likely due to the COVID-19 pandemic, meaning it is expected to rebound.
The UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) website states that in order to meet the goals set out in the Paris Agreement and prevent the earth from heating by 1.5c, the move towards renewable energy and away from fossil fuels must happen five times faster than the present speed. In order to do this, they say, countries must end the use of coal power by the year 2030 or 2040, depending on the economic status of the country, and drastically increase the use of clean power, produced by renewable energy sources.
"We cannot afford to wait to act against the threat of climate change," reads the COP26 website. "We must work together to protect our planet and people and ensure a greener, more resilient future for us all."
約旦在約旦河西岸定居點批准出售 1,300 套公寓後抨擊以色列
左翼政治家和活動家對西岸定居點將銷售 1,355 套住房表示憤慨。
作者：KHALED ABU TOAMEH , TZVI JOFFRE
2021 年 10 月 24 日 21:38
在西岸的 Beit El 建造 300 套住房
約旦週日猛烈抨擊以色列，稱其“拒絕並譴責”在西岸建造 1,355 套住房的計劃。上週，美國對以色列計劃在定居點建造 3,000 座新房屋以及將兩個非法前哨合法化表示擔憂。
週日，以色列土地管理局和建築和住房部長 Ze'ev Elkin 公佈了住房單元的營銷招標。該公告發布之際，有報導稱，總理納夫塔利·貝內特 (Naftali Bennett) 面臨美國要求凍結此類計劃的壓力。
宣布的內容包括 Ariel 的 729 個單位、Beit El 的 346 個單位、Elkana 的 102 個單位、Geva Binyamin 的 90 個單位、Emanuel 的 57 個單位、Karnei Shomron 的 22 個單位和 Beitar Illit 的一個單位。
“正如我們承諾的那樣，我們交付了，”他說。“在猶太復國主義企業的願景中，加強和擴大猶太和撒瑪利亞的猶太人定居點是必要且非常重要的事情。在猶太和撒瑪利亞的建設長期停滯後，我歡迎銷售超過 1,000 套住房。我將繼續在猶地亞和撒馬利亞維持猶太人的定居點。”