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Daily Halacha Podcast - Daily Halacha By Rabbi Eli J. Mansour
Rabbi Eli J. Mansour
Daily Halacha Given Daily by Rabbi Eli J. Mansour. Please check back frequently to get the latest Halacha.
20 hours ago
Cards and Stickers With the Words "En Od Milebado"
Rav Haim of Volozhin (1749-1821), in his famous work Nefesh Ha’haim (3:3), mentions that contemplating the words "En Od Milebado" – that there is no power or force in the world besides G-d – is an effective Segula against harm. This concept already appears in the Gemara, which tells that Rav Hanina Ben Dosa was unharmed when sorcerers tried to cast a spell on him, because he said, "En Od Milebado," reaffirming his belief that only G-d controls the universe, and there is no force capable of overpowering Him. Rav Haim writes that contemplating these words and their meaning is an effective Segula to ensure that nobody exerts any sort of control or power over a person (listen to audio recording for precise citation). Accordingly, it has become common for people to keep near them cards or stickers with the words "En Od Milebado," so that whenever they find themselves in any sort of difficult situation they will be reminded of this concept and thus make use of this special Segula. People keep these in their wallets, on their refrigerators, in their cars, and other places so they will frequently be reminded of this concept. It should be noted, however, that these cards and stickers require Geniza (burial), since these three words come from a Pasuk in the Torah. Once they start to fade and one wants to replace them, they may not be thrown it in the trash; they must be placed together with other sacred texts which will be collected for burial. This is the ruling of Hacham Moshe Shayo in his Mehkereh Eretz (vol. 4, Y.D. 30). Summary: Many people have cards or stickers with the words "En Od Milebado" because contemplating these words is an effective Segula for protection against harm. One must ensure not to throw out these stickers or cards, and to rather put them in a Geniza.
1 day ago
How Many Children Must One Have to Fulfill the Misva of Peru U'rbu?
The Shulhan Aruch, toward the beginning of the Eben Ha’ezer section, rules that one fulfills the Misva of Peru U’rbu (procreation) by begetting at least one boy and at least one girl. This ruling follows the view of Bet Hillel, as recorded by the Talmud in Masechet Yebamot (61b). Bet Shammai disagrees, and maintains that one fulfills the Misva by begetting two sons. Interestingly, the Rash (Rabbi Shimshon of Sens, France, 12th century), in the Yerushalmi Yebamot, advances a different understanding of Bet Hillel’s view. He contended that if Bet Hillel considers one to have fulfilled the obligation of Peru U’r’bu by begetting a boy and a girl, then certainly he considers the Misva to be fulfilled by fathering two boys. The only argument between Bet Hillel and Bet Shammai, according to the Rash, is whether one fulfills the obligation by fathering a boy and a girl, but all views agree that one fulfills the Misva by fathering two boys. This is not, however, the accepted understanding of Bet Hillel’s view. The Shulhan Aruch explicitly states that in order to fulfill the Misva of Peru U’r’bu, one must have at least one boy and at least one girl. Furthermore, in order to fulfill the Misva, one must have at least one son and one daughter who are capable of reproducing. If an only son or an only daughter is physically incapable of begetting children of his or her own, then the father does not fulfill the Misva. If a person produces a Mamzer or Mamzeret (child born from certain forms of illicit relationships), that child counts toward the fulfillment of the Misva. A Mamzer is allowed to marry a Mamzeret, and such children are therefore considered capable of reproducing. Thus, with regard to fulfilling the Misva of Peru U’r’bu, a Mamzer or Mamzeret is no different than an ordinary child. This applies as well to a child who is deaf or mentally impaired. Since these children are capable of reproducing, they count toward the father’s fulfillment of the Misva of Peru U’r’bu. If a person fathered a son and a daughter, but they passed away during his lifetime, has he fulfilled his Misva of Peru U’r’bu? The answer depends on whether or not the children had themselves begotten children before their deaths. If one of the children (either the son or the daughter) had produced a son and the other a daughter, and then they died, the grandfather has fulfilled his Misva. If, however, the son or the daughter died without having produced any children, then even though the surviving child has produced a son and a daughter, the grandfather has not fulfilled the Misva of Peru U’r’bu. Summary: In order to fulfill the Misva of Peru U’r’bu (procreation), a man must father at least one boy and at least one girl, both of whom are physically capable of reproducing. If one begot a boy and a girl and they died during his lifetime, he has not fulfilled the Misva, unless one of them left behind at least one son and the other left behind at least one daughter.
2 days ago
Gemara in Baba Kama (p.9) discusses the value of "Hidur Misva"-to perform Misvot in a beautiful fashion, and not just fulfill the minimal requirement. The Sefer Hasidim (Rabbenu Yehuda HaHasid of Germany, d. 1217, Siman129) elaborates on this principle, based on the Pasuk, "Kabed et Hashem MeHonecha-Honor Hashem with your wealth." He says that just like one buys a beautiful jewelry box to hold his valuables, so too one should buy a beautiful case for his Tefilin and holy books. This is the source for buying a nice Tefilin and Tallit bag. If one stores his physical possessions nicely, how much more so he should keep his spiritual ones. On the other hand, in Siman 878 he writes that one should not delay performing a Misva until he is able to do so in a beautiful way. For example, he shouldn’t pass up the opportunity to buy a simple Etrog or Sefer Torah, because he is holding out for a special one. As soon as he is able to do the Misva, he should immediately seize the opportunity. The Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933, Siman 656:6) discusses the Gemara that says that one should spend up to one-third more for the beautiful Misva. If one spends more, that is "G-d’s part." He cites Rashi that explains that if one spends even more than the required one third, he will receive the reward not only in the next world, but also in this world. The Mishna Berura also brings an opinion that someone who is very wealthy should spend even more than one-third. SUMMARY It is better to seize the opportunity to perform a Misva in a simple manner than delay until it can be performed beautifully.
3 days ago
Consulting One's Spouse Before Liquidating Assets
The Gemara in Baba Kama (p.15) states that there is no difference between men and women with regard to monetary damages. If a woman damages someone else’s property, she is liable, according to the same standards as a man. The Poskim discuss the Halacha of damages done by a woman to her husband’s possessions. The Shulhan Aruch (Eben HaEzer 80:17)rules that a woman who damages household utensils while performing housework is exempt from compensating her husband, who legally is the owner of the household assets. The commentaries to the Shulhan Aruch, the Chelkak Mehokek and the Bet Shmuel infer from this that she is exempt only from damage caused during her work, but she would be liable for damage caused at other times. Nevertheless, they cite the Talmud Yerushalmi, which says that she is exempt from any damage caused in the house, even if it was not a result of her work. This would not necessarily apply to a case where she broke utensils on purpose or where she gave them away to someone else. She must consult with her husband before she unilaterally liquidates the assets of the house. SUMMARY A woman is not liable for inadvertent damage done to household items belonging to her husband. A woman may not give away household items without permission of her husband.
5 days ago
Torah Reading - If the Oleh Recites the Wrong Beracha
When a person receives an Aliya to the Torah, he recites the Beracha "Asher Bahar Banu Mi’kol Ha’amim" before the reading, and then the Beracha "Asher Natan Lanu Torato Torat Emet" after the reading. If the Oleh (person receiving the Aliya) mistakenly began reciting "Asher Natan Lanu" before the reading, and the congregation immediately corrects him, he may simply recite right then and there "Asher Bahar Banu." This will then be a perfectly valid Beracha, and his recitation of the introductory phrase "Baruch Ata Hashem Elokenu Melech Ha’olam" counts for the correct Beracha. If he did not catch his mistake until he completed the Beracha, then he does not have to then recite the correct Beracha. The reading proceeds as usual, and then after the reading he recites the Beracha "Asher Bahar Banu," which should have been recited before the reading. This is the ruling of the Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933). Likewise, if one mistakenly began reciting the wrong Beracha after the reading, and he catches himself before completing the Beracha, he simply corrects himself. Hacham David Yosef writes that even if the Oleh realized his mistake toward the end of the Beracha, after the second instance "Baruch Ata Hashem," he may correct himself by reciting, "Asher Natan Lanu Torato Torat Emet…" Even though he had almost completed the incorrect Beracha, it is nevertheless not too late to correct his mistake. If he completed the entire Beracha before realizing his mistake, he does not have to then recite the correct Beracha. Although there are different opinions among the Halachic authorities in this regard, we follow the rule of "Safek Berachot Le’hakel," and the Beracha is not recited due to the Halachic uncertainty involved. Before reciting the first Beracha over the reading, the Oleh should first declare, "Hashem Imachem," to which the congregation responds by saying, "Yebarechecha Hashem." This custom is mentioned by the Hesed La’alafim (Rav Eliezer Papo, 1786-1827), and is likely intended for the purpose of calling the congregation to attention for "Barechu." The Hesed La’alafim writes that it is preferable to say "Hashem" and not G-d’s actual Name when declaring, "Hashem Imachem." The Shulhan Aruch (Orah Haim 140) addresses the case of an Oleh who faints in the middle of the Aliya, or needs to be replaced for some other reason. The majority of the Rishonim maintained that the person who replaces the Oleh recites the first Beracha again and then repeats the reading from the beginning of the Aliya. Since the entire text requires a Beracha both before and after, the second person must recite a new Beracha before he begins reading. The Shulhan Aruch then cites a different view, that of the Rambam (Rav Moshe Maimonides, Spain-Egypt, 1135-1204), who understood the Talmud Yerushalmi as saying that the second person does not recite the first Beracha, and recites only the Beracha after the reading. After citing both views, the Shulhan Aruch rules in accordance with the first position. However, given the different opinions that exist, we apply the rule of "Safek Berachot Le’hakel," and so the second Oleh does not recite the first Beracha. Nevertheless, the Hid"a (Rav Haim Yosef David Azulai, 1724-1807) writes that if the person insists on following the Shulhan Aruch’s ruling, he may be allowed to recite the first Beracha, as well. The Hid"a explains that according to some authorities, one should recite a Beracha required by the Shulhan Aruch’s ruling even if others disagree, and although we do not generally follow this view, one who wishes to recite a Beracha required by the Shulhan Aruch may be allowed to do so. Summary: If the Oleh recites before the Aliya the Beracha that should be recited after the Aliya, or vice versa, he may correct himself and recite the proper Beracha, as long as he had not completed the incorrect Beracha. If he did not realize his mistake until after he completed the incorrect Beracha, he does not then have to recite the correct Beracha. If this happened when the Oleh recited the Beracha before the Aliya, and he recited the Beracha that should be recited after the Aliya, then after the Aliya he recites the Beracha that is normally recited before the Aliya. If the Oleh fainted during the Aliya or needed to be replaced for some other reason, the new Oleh begins the Aliya anew but does not repeat the first Oleh’s Beracha; he recites only the Beracha after the Aliya.
6 days ago
If A Minyan Becomes Less Than 10 During The Reading of Sefer Torah
The Torah is read in the synagogue only in the presence of a Minyan, as the Shulhan Aruch rules (Orah Haim 143). The question arises as to whether the reading may continue if ten men were present when the reading began, but one or more of them left the synagogue during the reading. Must the reading immediately stop, or may the reader continue until the end of the Aliya? And if he indeed should continue reading, does the Oleh recite the Beracha after the reading, and does the reading continue beyond that Aliya? The Shulhan Aruch writes that as long as the reading began with ten men, that day’s obligatory reading is completed, even if the Minyan was lost during the reading. This means that all three Aliyot are read on an ordinary weekday, and all seven Aliyot on Shabbat, even if the tenth man walked out during the first Aliya. No extra Aliyot may be added, but the obligatory Aliyot are completed. However, according to Sephardic practice, following the ruling of the Shulhan Aruch, the Kaddish after the reading is not recited in such a case. The Kaddish is regarded as separate and apart from the actual reading, and thus if a Minyan is not present when the reading ends, Kaddish is not recited. This Halacha applies only if a Minyan was present when the first Oleh began reciting the Beracha of "Asher Bahar Banu." If the tenth man left while the first Oleh recited "Barechu," before he began reciting the Beracha of "Asher Bahar Banu," the Torah may not be read. Although the Torah reading may be completed if it began with a Minyan, the Maftir is not read in such a case. Halacha regards the Maftir as a separate entity, and therefore, if the tenth man left the synagogue at some point during the Torah reading on Shabbat, for example, the seven Aliyot are completed, but the Maftir is not read. Similarly, Hacham David Yosef writes in his Halacha Berura that if the tenth man walked out during the Maftir reading, the Haftara is not read, as the Haftara is considered a separate entity. If, however, the reader began reciting the Beracha before the Haftara and then the tenth man walked out, he may complete the Beracha, read the Haftara, and even recite the Berachot after the Haftara. It must be emphasized that it is strictly forbidden to leave the synagogue if this will cause the Minyan to be lost. This entire discussion refers to a case where one acted improperly and walked out of the synagogue, leaving behind only nine men. Clearly, however, the man committed a sin by walking out. The prophet Yeshayahu says about such a person, "Ve’ozebeh Hashem Yichlu" – those who walk out suffer a harsh fate, Heaven forbid. If there are only six men present in the synagogue who had not yet heard the Torah reading, they may invite four others who have already heard the reading to form a Minyan, and the reading may then be conducted. As long as six men – the majority of a Minyan – have not yet heard the reading, the Torah may be read. This is the ruling of Rav Haim Palachi (Turkey, 1788-1869). Although others require at least seven men who had not heard the Torah reading, Hacham Ovadia Yosef, in his Yabia Omer, follows the lenient ruling, that it suffices if six have not yet heard the reading. Summary: It is forbidden to leave the synagogue during the prayer service if this will result in the Minyan being lost. If one person or several people left the synagogue during the Torah reading, and fewer than ten men remain, the reading may nevertheless continue, and all the required Aliyot for that day (e.g. seven on Shabbat) are completed. As long as ten men were present when the first Oleh recited the Beracha of "Asher Bahar Banu," the reading may be completed even if the Minyan was lost subsequently. However, Kaddish is not recited after the reading in such a case, and neither the Maftir nor the Haftara may be read. If the Minyan was lost during the Maftir reading, the reading may be completed, but the Haftara is not read. If the Minyan was lost when the Beracha before the Haftara was being recited, the reader continues reciting the Beracha, reads the Haftara, and recites the Berachot after the Haftara. If at least six people have not heard the Torah reading, they may invite four people who did hear the reading to complete the Minyan, and the Torah may then be read.
Oct 14, 2020
The Prohibition Against Leaving the Synagogue During the Torah Reading
The Shulhan Aruch (Orah Haim 146:1) writes that it is forbidden to leave the synagogue once the Sefer Torah has been opened for the reading. Even if the reading has not yet begun, one may not walk out once the Torah is opened. The Gemara speaks very strongly about this prohibition of leaving during the Torah reading, applying to such a person the verse, "Ve’ozbeh Hashem Yichlu" – "Those who abandon G-d shall be destroyed" (Yeshayahu 1:28). The Shulhan Aruch adds that it is permissible to leave in between Aliyot. However, the Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan, 1839-1933) clarifies that this applies only under certain conditions. Namely, if one has a need to leave the synagogue, and this is done occasionally, and not on a permanent basis, then he may leave. Of course, he should endeavor to make it back before the reading resumes, unless he had already heard the entire Torah reading. There is, unfortunately, a widespread misconception that it is entirely permissible to walk out of the synagogue in between Aliyot. This is incorrect. As noted, this is permitted only on an occasional basis, when the need arises, and one must ensure to return before the reading resumes.
Oct 13, 2020
Should One Stand During the Hazzan's Repetition of the Amida?
The Rama (Rav Moshe Isserles of Cracow, 1530-1572) writes (in Orah Haim 124) that the custom among Ashkenazic communities is to stand during the Hazzan’s repetition of the Amida. The Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) cites the Peri Megadim (Rav Yosef Teomim, 1727-1792) as bemoaning the fact that many people do not follow this practice, as some stand while others sit. An earlier source for this practice is the Rambam (Rav Moshe Maimonides, Spain-Egypt, 1135-1204), who, in Hilchot Tefila, writes that during the Hazzan’s repetition, "Kol Ha’am Omedim Ve’shom’im" – "all the people stand and listen." The Rambam clearly writes that the congregation should stand during the repetition of the Amida. This is, indeed, the view of numerous Sephardic Poskim, including the Hid"a (Rav Haim Yosef David Azulai, 1724-1806), in Kesher Godal; Rav Haim Palachi (Turkey, 1788-1868); Rav Yaakob Haim Sofer (Baghdad-Jerusalem, 1870-1939); the Hesed La’alafim (Rav Eliezer Papo, 1785-1828); and the Ben Ish Hai (Rav Yosef Haim of Baghdad, 1833-1909), in Parashat Teruma. By contrast, Hacham Ovadia Hedaya (Egypt-Israel, 1889-1969), in his work Yaskil Abdi, contended that the Rambam’s comments must be read differently. The Gemara in Masechet Sota establishes the prohibition against speaking during Torah reading from the verse in the Book of Nehemya (8) which describes what happened when the Sefer Torah was open: "U’be’pit’ho Amedu Ha’am" – "When it was opened, the nation stood." This verse indicated to the Gemara that the congregation must remain silent once the Torah scroll is opened to be read. Clearly, the Gemara understood that the word "Amedu" means not "stand," but rather "remain silent." By extension, Hacham Ovadia Hedaya writes, when the Rambam says that people must be "Omedim Ve’shom’im" during the repetition of the Amida, he means not that they should stand, but rather that they must remain silent. Hacham Ovadia Hedaya draws proof to his theory from the fact that the Rama does not cite the Rambam as his source for the practice to stand. He writes that this was customary in Ashkenaz, without saying that this was the Rambam’s view. Evidently, the Rama did not understand the Rambam to mean that the congregation must stand during the Hazzan’s repetition of the Amida. If he did, he would have drawn our attention to the fact that the Rambam is the source of this Ashkenazic practice. Hacham Ovadia Hedaya adds that in any event, nowadays, when we all recite the Amida ourselves, and nobody fulfills their requirement by listening to the Hazzan’s repetition (as people did in yesteryear), there is no reason for the congregation to stand. To the contrary, it might be preferable to sit, to make it easier to concentrate on the Hazzan. One can easily refute Hacham Ovadia Hedaya’s arguments, in light of the fact that the Rambam, in establishing the requirement to remain silent during the Torah reading, writes, "Kol Ha’am Shotekim Ve’shom’im" – "all the people must be silent and listen." In the context of the Torah reading, the Rambam uses the word "Shotekim" to refer to silence, and thus it stands to reason that the word "Omedim" which he uses in reference to the Hazzan’s repetition means "stand." Otherwise, he would have used the same term in both contexts. Moreover, the Rambam’s son, Rabbenu Abraham Ben Ha’Rambam (1186-1237), cited in the introduction to the work Ma’aseh Roke’ah, tells of how the Rambam did away with the Hazzan’s repetition of the Amida in his synagogue. Seeing that people were not paying attention to the repetition, and were conversing with one another, the Rambam decided to eliminate the repetition. In describing the situation which led the Rambam to this drastic decision, Rabbenu Abraham writes that the people "were not standing with awe and fear like they stand during the silent Amida," as is required. This clearly indicates that the Rambam felt that standing is required during the repetition. As for the Rama, he was just recording the practice among Ashkenazic communities. His purpose was not to document the Halachic sources of this practice, but simply to establish that this was the accepted custom in his region. Some have suggested drawing proof that standing is not required from the comment in the Talmud Yerushalmi (Masechet Rosh Hashanah) that Rav Hisda would sit during the repetition of the Amida of Musaf on Rosh Hashanah. This would appear to prove that it is acceptable to sit during the repetition of the Amida. However, the Halachot Ketanot (Rav Yaakob Hagiz, 1620-1674) refutes this proof, noting that Rav Hisda likely sat because he was elderly and frail, and it is clear that somebody in this condition is allowed to sit. Indeed, even the Ben Ish Hai, who, as mentioned, requires standing during the repetition, concedes that an elderly or otherwise frail person may sit. Regardless, Hacham Ovadia Yosef, in Yehaveh Da’at, brings proof against the stringent view, showing that it is legitimate to sit during the repetition of the Amida. His son, Hacham David Yosef, notes that the common practice among Sephardim nowadays is to sit, though he shows that this was not always the case. In practice, those who have the custom to sit certainly have a basis on which to rely, but one who is healthy and can easily stand should preferably do so, in accordance with the view of the Poskim noted above. Summary: The general custom among Sephardim is to sit during the Hazzan’s repetition of the Amida. Although this practice is valid, it is preferable for those who are healthy and do not have a problem standing to do so.
Oct 12, 2020
Reciting Kaddish After the Torah Reading
On Shabbat morning, after completing the Torah reading, before the Maftir reading, Kaddish is recited. This is generally done after seven Aliyot – the minimum amount of Aliyot called to the Torah on Shabbat morning. A congregation may, however, call more than seven Aliyot on Shabbat morning, in which case the Kaddish is recited after the final Aliya, before the Maftir, the Aliya which repeats the last several verses of the Parasha. However, according to Sephardic practice, which follows the view of the Ribash (1326-1408), there are occasions when a second Kaddish is recited after the Maftir reading. This happens on a Shabbat when a special Maftir is recited, such as on Shabbat Rosh Hodesh, or on Yom Tob, when the Maftir reading is the section that deals with the special sacrifice brought on that holiday. On a normal Shabbat, the last verses of the Parasha are repeated only because it would be disrespectful to the Torah scroll for somebody to be called to read the Haftara, the section from the Prophets, without also reading from the Sefer Torah. Since there is no actual requirement to read the Maftir section on an ordinary Shabbat, a Kaddish is not needed after the reading of Maftir. However, on a Shabbat when a special Maftir is read, the Maftir reading fulfills a specific requirement. The special occasion obligates the reading of these verses. As such, on these occasions, the Maftir reading constitutes an independent Torah reading, such that a separate Kaddish is recited. The concept underlying this practice is that each section of the prayer service is concluded with the recitation of Kaddish. This is indicated in a responsum of the Geonim stating that Kaddish is recited after Pesukeh De’zimra; after the section of Shema, Amida and Vidui; and then after Kiddusha De’sidra (Ashreh and U’ba Le’sion). Each section is concluded with Kaddish, and thus, by the same token, each Torah reading is concluded with Kaddish. (This point is made by Rav Natan Ben-Senor, in Ner Sion.) This applies, as mentioned, on Shabbat Rosh Hodesh and on Yom Tob. One Kaddish is recited after the reading from the first Sefer Torah, and then a second Kaddish is read after the Maftir reading from the second Sefer Torah. If Rosh Hodesh Tebet falls on Shabbat, then three Sifreh Torah are read, as special sections are read for Rosh Hodesh and also for Hanukah. In such a case, if seven Aliyot were called to the first Sefer Torah, then three Kadishim are recited – one after the reading from each Sefer Torah. If only six Aliyot are called to the first Sefer Torah, then two Kaddishim are recited – one after the reading of the Rosh Hodesh section from the second Sefer Torah, and another after the reading of the Hanukah section from the third Sefer Torah. On Simhat Torah, too, we read from three Sifreh Torah. From the first, we read the final Parasha of the Torah, Parashat Ve’zot Ha’beracha; from the second, we read the first section of Parashat Bereshit; and from the third, we read the Maftir, the section that deals with the special sacrifice offered on the holiday. Two Kaddishim are recited – one after the reading of Parashat Bereshit from the second Sefer Torah, and another after the reading of the Maftir. Kaddish is not recited after reading the first Sefer Torah so as not to make an interruption between the reading of the final Parasha of the Torah and the reading of the first Parasha. The Rabbis teach that such an interruption gives Satan the opportunity to prosecute against us, and so we proceed immediately from the reading of Parashat Ve’zot Ha’beracha to the reading of Parashat Beresheet, without interrupting even for the recitation of Kaddish. Ashkenazim, following the ruling of the Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933), abide by a different view, and never recite a second Kaddish after the Maftir. The practice of the Sepharadim, however, follows the ruling of the Ribash, as discussed. Hacham Bension Abba Shaul (Israel, 1924-1998), in Or Le’sion (vol. 2), rules that even if a congregation has only one Sefer Torah on a Shabbat when a special Maftir is read, a second Kaddish is recited after the Maftir reading. A second Kaddish is recited on these special occasions not because a second Sefer Torah is read, but because the Maftir reading constitutes a separate requirement. Therefore, it makes no difference whether the special Maftir is read from a different Sefer Torah or from the same Sefer Torah as the rest of the day’s reading. It should be noted that when the Torah is read at Minha, such as on Shabbat afternoon, Kaddish is not recited after the Torah reading. The reason is that Kaddish is recited right after the Torah reading, once the Torah is returned to the ark, before the Amida, and this Kaddish covers the Torah reading, as well. This applies even on Yom Kippur, when a Haftara is read after the Torah reading at Minha (the Book of Yona). The Haftara is considered an extension of the Torah reading, and there is therefore no need to recite Kaddish after the Torah reading. Summary: On a regular Shabbat, when the Maftir reading merely repeats the last several verses of the Torah portion, Kaddish is recited only after the completion of the Torah portion, and is not repeated after Maftir. However, according to Sephardic practice, when a special section is read for Maftir, such as Shabbat Rosh Hodesh, or on Yom Tob, an additional Kaddish is recited after Maftir. This applies even if a congregation has only one Sefer Torah and the Maftir is read from the same scroll as the rest of the reading.
Oct 9, 2020
Sukkot - Reciting "Le'sheb Ba'Sukka" Over "Mezonot" Food
The Shulhan Aruch (Orah Haim 639:2) writes that one recites the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" only when he sits down to a meal consisting of at last one Ke’besa (two ounces) of "Pat" ("bread"). A number of prominent Poskim, including the Ginat Veradim (Rav Abraham Ha’levi, 1650-1712), maintain that this includes "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin" – baked grain products other than bread, such as cake. The Ginat Veradim demonstrates from the Rambam and other sources that foods such as fruits and the like are excluded from the Beracha, but not "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin." In his view, then, if one eats a Ka’besa or more of cake, for example, he would recite the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka." By contrast, the Hid"a (Rav Haim Yosef David Azulai, 1724-1806), in his Mahazik Beracha, writes that when he was in Jerusalem, he saw great Sadikim eating more than a Ka’besa of "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin" in the Sukka on Sukkot, without reciting a Beracha. Later Sephardic Poskim, including Hacham Bension Abba Shaul (Israel, 1924-1998) and Hacham Ovadia Yosef, accept this testimony of the Hid"a as authoritative, and conclude that one recites the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" only if he eats a Ka’besa or more of bread. Everything else is eaten in the Sukka without the recitation of this Beracha. The Sha’areh Teshuba (639:3) brings a view that makes an exception in this regard when one makes Kiddush in the Sukka on Shabbat or Yom Tob morning, and will be eating his meal later. The obligation of Kiddush requires reciting Kiddush in the context of a meal, and thus one who makes Kiddush well before his meal must eat some "Mezonot" food so that the Kiddush will be considered to have been recited in the framework of a meal. Some argued that in such a case, if one eats a Ka’besa of cake, for example, he recites the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka," even according to the Hida. The consumption of this Ka’besa assumes special significance by virtue of the fact that it comprises a "meal" with respect to Kiddush, and as such, it warrants the recitation of the Beracha. However, Hacham Ovadia Yosef does not accept this distinction, citing sources indicating that the custom in Jerusalem was not to recite a Beracha even in such a case. Therefore, the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" is recited only when one eats a Ka’besa or more of bread. It should be emphasized, however, that one who eats a Ka’besa or more of "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin" must do so in the Sukka, even though a Beracha is not recited. The reason is that different views exist regarding the definition of "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin," what characteristic disqualifies a product from the status of "bread" and relegates it to the status of "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin." One view maintains that anytime dough is mixed with a sweetening agent, the "bread" is not considered "Pat," and rather has the status of "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin." Others argue that the sweetening agents must be placed together in "pockets" in the product for it to lose its status as "Pat." Yet a third view maintains that the product must be hard and crunchy. When it comes to the Halachot of Berachot, we accept all three definitions of "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin," and so we recite "Mezonot" and "Al Ha’mihya" over a product that meets any of these three definitions. However, as the requirement of Sukka constitutes a Torah obligation, we must eat such products in the Sukka, given the uncertainty involved, unless a product has all three properties. And therefore, one who eats a Ka’besa or more of cake or cookies must do so in the Sukka. Wafers, however, satisfy all three definitions of "Pat Ha’ba’a Be’kisnin," and thus they may be eaten outside the Sukka. Summary: The Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" is recited only when one sits down to a meal consisting of at least two ounces of bread. If one eats this amount of "Mezonot" food, such as cake or cookies, he must do so in the Sukka, but no Beracha is recited. An exception is wafers, which does not require a Sukka.
Oct 8, 2020
Sukkot- Is the Beracha Over the Sukka Ever Recited Without Eating a Meal?
The Rishonim debate the question of whether one recites the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" each time he enters the Sukka, or only when he sits down to a meal. The Rambam (Rav Moshe Maimonides, Spain-Egypt, 1135-1204), in Hilchot Sukka (6:6), writes that a person recites the Beracha when he enters the Sukka, before he sits down. The Rambam makes no mention of eating in this context, indicating that the Beracha is not linked at all to eating a meal. The Maggid Mishneh commentary (by Rav Vidal of Tolosa, Spain, late 14th century) notes that this ruling follows the view of the Geonim, including Rav Hai Gaon (11th century), as well as the view of the Rif (Rav Yishak of Fez, Morocco, 1013-1103). According to this opinion, one can recite the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" many times throughout the day on Sukkot, as each time he enters the Sukka, he recites this Beracha. The Maggid Mishneh adds one qualification to this view, however, stating that one recites this Beracha only if he had left the Sukka for a significant period, such that he had "Heseh Ha’da’at" ("distraction") from the Sukka. If he left the Sukka just to get something from the house, for example, then even according to this view, he does not recite the Beracha when he returns to the Sukka. Rabbenu Tam (France, 1100-1171), however, disagreed. He ruled that although the Misva of Sukka requires one to do in the Sukka everything he normally does in his home, nevertheless, the Beracha was instituted only for when one eats a meal in the Sukka. The Shulhan Aruch (639:8), surprisingly, does not bring the ruling of the Rambam and the Rif, as we would have expected. Instead, he writes that the accepted custom is in accordance with Rabbenu Tam’s position, to recite a Beracha over the Misva of Sukka only when beginning a meal. The Taz (Rav David Segal, 1586-1667) explains Rabbenu Tam’s view by positing that eating constitutes the "Ikar" – the primary fulfillment of the Misva, whereas other activities are the "Tafel" (subordinate component). Although one is required to perform all his activities in the Sukka, the primary obligation is to eat in the Sukka. As such, the Beracha over eating covers the other activities which one performs in the Sukka. The Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) clarifies that although one might perform some activities after entering the Sukka before sitting down to eat, nevertheless, the Beracha covers those activities retroactively after it is recited. However, the Mishna Berura adds that one should recite the Beracha and sit as soon as he can after entering the Sukka. The Taz’s understanding of Rabbenu Tam’s position could yield a number of interesting conclusions. First, the Taz boldly asserts that if one is not eating one day of Sukkot – for example, he dreamt a frightening dream, and thus observes a fast the next day – he recites the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" when he enters the Sukka, even though he is not eating. Since Rabbenu Tam’s view is based on the fact that the Beracha recited over eating in the Sukka covers other activities, one who is not eating throughout the day must the recite the Beracha when he enters the Sukka. Other Poskim, however, dispute this ruling, and understand that according to Rabbenu Tam, the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" was instituted only over eating in the Sukka. Another example of how this question may affect the Halacha is a case addressed by the Hayeh Adam (Rav Abraham Danzig, Vilna, 1748-1820), of a person who leaves his Sukka and then returns in between meals. For example, a person left the Sukka after breakfast, returned in the afternoon, and will be going to recite Minha in the synagogue before supper. In such a case, the Hayeh Adam writes, the person must recite the Beracha over the period he spends in the Sukka in between meals. Since no Beracha is recited over eating during this interim period, this period spent in the Sukka is not covered by a Beracha, and the person must therefore recite a Beracha upon entering the Sukka, according to Rabbenu Tam. In practice, this is not the accepted custom. Nevertheless, Rav Natan Ben Senor (contemporary) recommends that if a person does spend time in the Sukka in between meals, he should preferably try to eat bread so he can recite the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" and satisfy all opinions. In Sha’ar Ha’siyun, the Mishna Berura brings those who maintain that even according to Rabbenu Tam, one would recite a Beracha when he visits somebody else’s Sukka, even if he does not eat. The reason behind this distinction is the concept of "Teshbu Ke’en Taduru" – that the Torah requires treating the Sukka like one’s home. Just as a person generally eats meals at home, but eats light snacks elsewhere, similarly, Halacha requires eating one’s meals – defined as a Ke’besa (the volume of an egg) of bread – in the Sukka, but permits eating light snacks outside the Sukka. However, it is not all that common when visiting someone to eat a formal meal. Therefore, according to this view, even Rabbenu Tam would agree that if a person visits somebody, he recites a Beracha even if he does not eat, because in this instance, the "Ikar" is specifically not eating a meal, but simply being present in the Sukka. This view is brought also by the Aruch Ha’shulhan (Rav Yechiel Michel Epstein of Nevarduk, 1829-1908). It is told that Rav Aharon Kotler (1891-1962) was once in somebody’s Sukka when a guest arrived, took a fruit, recited "Boreh Peri Ha’etz" and then recited "Le’sheb Ba’Sukka." Rav Kotler commended the fellow for reciting the Beracha, in accordance with this view brought by the Sha’ar Ha’siyun. Nevertheless, the commonly accepted practice is not to recite the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" unless one eats a Ka’besa of bread (or of "Mezonot" food, as will be explained in a different installment of Daily Halacha), even when visiting somebody else’s Sukka. This is the ruling of Hacham Ovadia Yosef, in Hazon Ovadia. Summary: Although one is required to perform all his activities in the Sukka during Sukkot, the accepted custom is to recite the Beracha of "Le’sheb Ba’sukka" only before sitting down to a meal. (The precise definition of a "meal" with respect to this Halacha will be discussed in a separate installment.)
Oct 7, 2020
Is it Permissible to Take a Shower on Yom Tob?
Is one allowed to take a hot shower or bath on Yom Tob? When it comes to Shabbat, the Shulhan Aruch (Orah Haim 326) writes that the Sages enacted a law forbidding bathing on Shabbat even with water that had been heated before Shabbat. Such water may be used for washing one’s face, hands and feet, but not his entire body. Water heated on Shabbat may not be used at all, even for washing one’s face, hands and feet. With regard to Yom Tob, however, the Poskim raise the possibility that there is greater room for leniency, in light of the fact that heating water is allowed on Yom Tob. As we know, cooking is allowed on Yom Tob, and the Sages extended the law permitting kindling a flame for cooking on Yom Tob to include kindling a flame for any purpose, as long as it is "Shaveh Le’chol Nefesh" – something that all people need, just like cooking. Thus, for example, under uncomfortably cold conditions, it is permissible to kindle a fire for heat on Yom Tob, as this is something which e…
Oct 6, 2020
The Misva of Arabot on Hoshana Rabba
There is a Minhag (custom) established by the prophets to take Arabot and bang them on the ground on Hoshana Rabba. The custom is to take five Arabot, tie them together, and bang them five times on the ground, without reciting a Beracha. (Since this practice is only a Minhag, it does not warrant the recitation of a Beracha. This Halacha is known by the expression, "Habit Habit Ve’lo Berich.") The reason for this custom relates to the comment of the Midrash that the leaves of the Araba symbolize the lips. Specifically, the Arabot represent the lips of the Satan, and we bang them on the ground in order to silence the Satan so he does not prosecute against us. Hoshana Rabba is the day when our final judgment is sealed, and we therefore seek to silence the Satan in an effort to guarantee a favorable judgment. Furthermore, the Arizal (Rav Yishak Luria of Safed, 1534-1572) instructed that one should have in mind while banging the Arabot that the five beatings should correspond to the five…
Oct 5, 2020
May a Mourner Participate in the Hakafot on Simhat Torah?
Is it permissible for a mourner to take part in the Hakafot on Simhat Torah? If, Heaven forbid, a person is within twelve months of a parent’s passing, or within thirty days of another family member’s passing, such that he is observing Abelut (mourning), may he participate in the Hakafot, or must he abstain due to the festive nature of this celebration? Rav Shemuel Pinhasi (contemporary Halachic scholar in Israel), in his work Haim Va’hesed (18:20; listen to audio recording for precise citation), rules that it is permissible for a mourner to fully participate in the Hakafot, including the singing and dancing in honor of the Torah. He adds that a mourner is also permitted to take part in the festive meals that were traditionally held in honor of the Hatan Torah and Hatan Bereshit, as these meals are considered even greater than a Siyum meal celebrating the completion of a Masechet. Rav Pinhasi cites this ruling from the Kaf Ha’haim Sofer (689:33) and from Rav Haim Palachi (Turk…
Oct 2, 2020
Succot: Are The Lulav and Etrog Mukse on Shabbat?
The Hachamim instituted a Gezerah not to shake the Lulav and Etrog on Shabbat of Succot. Therefore, the Lulav and Aravot, which have no permissible use, retain a status of Mukse and may not be handled. However, Hacham Ovadia rules that the Hadasim and Etrog are not Mukse, if one intended to use them for their smell before Shabbat. Since there is no Misva to shake them on Shabbat, they are not designated exclusively for the Misva and may be used for smelling. Regarding the Etrog, there is a question as to which Beracha is made for its fragrance, and that is why it is not used for its fragrance during the year. Nevertheless it is not Mukse, since one can make a Beracha on a different fruit, having in mind to exempt the Etrog. SUMMARY The Lulav and Aravot are Mukse on the Shabbat of Succot, whereas the Etrog and Hadasim are not, since they may be used for their smell.
Oct 1, 2020
Succot: Kiddush on the First Night
After the Kiddush on the first night of Succot, two Berachot are added. First, "Lesheb Ba’Succah" is recited on performing the Misva of sitting in the Succah. Afterward, "She’he’hiyanu" is recited both for the Misva of sitting in the Succah, as well as on the holy day of the Hag itself. If one reversed the order, he has still fulfilled his obligation. The original Minhag in Haleb was for everyone to sit down immediately after reciting "Lesheb Ba’Succah," and then the Mekadesh would recite "She’he’hiyanu" while sitting. Today, this is not the accepted practice. Instead, the custom is to follow the Arizal (Rav Yishak Luria of Safed, 1534-1572), as cited by the Kaf HaHaim, who ruled to say both Berachot standing and then sit to drink the wine. If one forgot to recite "Lesheb Ba’Succah," until he already sat in the Succah, he may recite it then, when he remembers. This in accordance with the Rambam (Hilchot Berachot 11:5) that as long as the Misva is continual, like Succah,…
Sep 30, 2020
Succot- a Dry Etrog
The Torah refers to the Etrog as "Pri Es Hadar"-the beautiful fruit. The Oral tradition from Moshe identifies this fruit as the Etrog. The first Halacha in Shulhan Aruch, Siman 648, regarding Etrog is that a dry Etrog is invalid, because it is a lack in its "Hidur" (beauty). Nowadays, everyone can get a fresh Etrog. However, one must remember that in past years, Etrogim were often scarce, and they would be imported and preserved for many months until brought for use on Succot. Maran states that the dryness of an Etrog can be determined by passing a threaded needle through the Etrog. If the thread comes out totally dry, the Etrog is invalid. If it has moisture, the Etrog is still Kosher. The Poskim ask how Maran can suggest a test by piercing the Etrog; Maran himself quotes the Rambam in the next Halacha that an Etrog that was pierced from end to end is invalid, even if nothing is missing from the Etrog! The Mishna Berura (Rav Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin, 1839-1933) offers a number of…
Sep 29, 2020
Sukkot - Should One First Pick Up the Lulab, or the Etrog?
The common practice when taking the four species on Sukkot is to first take hold of the Lulab (of course, with the Hadasim and Arabot), recite the Beracha, and then pick up the Etrog and perform the Na’anu’im (waving) with the four species. This is, indeed, the view of the Shulhan Aruch. Others, however, maintained that one should first take hold of the Etrog, before the Lulab. The work Emek Beracha, written by the father of the Shela Ha’kadosh (Rav Yeshaya Horowitz, d. 1630), cites Rav Yehoshua Ibn Shueb, a disciple of the Rashba (Rav Shlomo Ben Aderet of Barcelona, 1235-1310), as holding this opinion. Ibn Shueb also maintained that after one fulfills the Misva, he should first put down the Lulab before putting down the Etrog. He compares the Lulab and Etrog in this regard to the Misva of Tefillin, which requires having the Tefillin Shel Yad on one’s arm whenever the Tefillin Shel Rosh is on one’s head. Just as one first wears the Shel Yad before the Shel Rosh, and removes…
Sep 27, 2020
Yom Kippur - Guidelines for Ill Patients Who Need to Eat
If an ill patient’s condition on Yom Kippur is life-threatening, Heaven forbid, then he eats and drinks as usual without any restrictions. The Torah is more concerned about human life than about fasting on Yom Kippur, and thus a dangerously ill patient’s top Halachic priority on Yom Kippur is his health. The Torah instructs, "Va’hai Bahem" – we are to live with the Torah, and not die as a result of Torah observance, and thus a dangerously ill patient eats and drinks on Yom Kippur without any Halachic restrictions whatsoever. This is not the case when dealing with a patient whose condition is not life-threatening, but who is nevertheless medically required to eat in order to protect his health. An example would be a woman who just delivered a child, or a patient who feels very weak. Although such patients are allowed and required to eat on Yom Kippur to maintain their health, they must ensure not to eat in a manner that would, in the case of a healthy person, render one liable…
Sep 25, 2020
Yom Kippur - Customs Relevant to the Musaf Prayer
During the Musaf prayer, the phrase "Mi Kamocha Ab Ha’rahaman" is replaced with "Mi Kamocha Ab Ha’rahamim." This custom is based on the Sha’ar Ha’kavanot. The Sha’ar Ha’kavanot writes that there is a special Kavana (intention) that one should have during the Kedusha recitation in Musaf and Ne’ila on Yom Kippur, and one who has this intention can then ask G-d either for children who are righteous, Ru’ah Ha’kodesh (special spiritual insight), or wealth, and his request will be granted. While reciting the word "Ayeh," one should have in mind three dots underneath the "Yod," which in Gematria equal 30, and a "Kamas" vowel underneath the "Heh," which in Gematria equals 16 (the "Patah" equals 6, and the dot which extends from the "Patah" to form a "Kamas" equals 10). Thus, all the "Nekudot" underneath the letters have a combined Gematria of 46. This word is associated with the special "Shem Ayin Bet" – a Name of Hashem which combines the Name of Havaya ("Yod," "Heh," "Va…
Sep 24, 2020
May the Kohanim Wash Their Hands for Birkat Kohanim on Yom Kippur?
Although bathing and washing are forbidden on Yom Kippur, Kohanim may wash their hands in preparation for Birkat Kohanim, as is normally done throughout the year. Since this washing is done for Halachic reasons, and not for comfort or enjoyment, it is permissible, and the Kohanim may wash the entire hand until the wrist, as they normally do. This is the ruling of the majority of the Halachic authorities, including Rav Haim Palachi (Turkey, 1788-1869), in his work Mo’ed Le’kol Hai (18:3), and Hacham Bension Abba Shaul (Israel, 1923-1998). However, Hacham Bension adds that whereas generally Kohanim wash each hand three times in preparation for Birkat Kohanim, on Yom Kippur they should wash each hand only once. Since the additional two washings are not technically required, they should not be done on Yom Kippur. Some Leviyim have the practice of washing their hands before washing the Kohanim’s hands in preparation for Birkat Kohanim. Hacham Bension writes that a Levi who normally…
Sep 23, 2020
Yom Kippur-Kohanim Levi'im Washing Their Hands
On Yom Kippur, bathing and washing are prohibited. However, the Kohanim who must wash their hands to give the Birkat Kohanim (Priestly Blessing) may do so, since this is a Halachically mandated washing, and not for pleasure. They may wash up until the wrist. This is the opinion of Hacham Bension and most other Poskim, including Rav Haim Palachi (Turkey, 1788-1869) in his Moed L’Kol Hai (18:13). However, Hacham Bension rules that although they normally wash their hands three times, on Yom Kippur they should only wash each hand once, as the extra washing is considered a secondary addition. In a place where the Levi’im wash the Kohanim’s hands, and they have the custom to first wash their own hands, Hacham Bension held that if that is their practice all year long, they may also do so on Yom Kippur. SUMMARY On Yom Kippur, Kohanim and Levi’im may wash their hands once up to the wrist in preparation for Birkat Kohanim.
Sep 22, 2020
Yom Kippur: The Prohibitions of Melacha, Eating and Drinking
On Yom Kippur, there is a Torah Prohibition to perform Melacha. Unlike other holidays, the restriction on Melacha on Yom Kippur is identical to Shabbat. Therefore, it is prohibited to carry without an Eruv, to cook and to handle any items defined as Muksa. The penalty for intentionally performing Melacha on Yom Kippur is Karet (early death from Heaven), whereas one who does Melacha on Shabbat is liable to receive Sekila (death by stoning). In addition to the prohibition of Melacha, there is a positive commandment to refrain from the five categories of bodily pleasures: eating and drinking, bathing, anointing, marital relations, and wearing leather shoes. According to the Rambam, all five categories are prohibited M’Doraita (from Torah law). Nevertheless, the severe punishment of Karet is only for eating and drinking. One who violates the other categories is not liable Karet, but he has violated a Misva from the Torah. Most other early authorities understand that the restrictions oth…
Sep 21, 2020
Yom Kippur-Halachot of Eating and Smelling
If someone inadvertently intended to eat on Yom Kippur, and realized his mistake after reciting the beracha on food, he should not even taste a little bit. It is better to have said a Beracha L’Vatala (in vein) than taste even a minute amount of food. He would then say "Baruch Shem Kavod Malhuto L’Olam Va’ed" to rectify his transgression. This is a function of the grave severity of eating on Yom Kippur. On other fast days, it would be preferable to taste the food, rather than say a Beracha L’Vatala. --- Swallowing saliva is not considered drinking, and there is no issue with doing so. Nevertheless, there were great Rabbis who accepted upon themselves as an extra stringency not to swallow. Rav Natan Wachtfogel of Lakewood Yeshiva would sit in the front of the Bet Midrash and secrete his saliva into tissues until his mouth dried up. --- Chewing gum, even if flavorless, is prohibited on Yom Kippur. --- Not only is it permitted to smell fragrances on Yom Kippur, it is considered a…
Sep 18, 2020
Rosh Hashana: The Hazara of Musaf
The Hazara of Musaf of Rosh Hashana is a very important Tefila, since the Shofar is blown after each of the three main Berachot: Malchuyot, Zichronot and Shofarot. According to some authorities, these Shofar blasts are the primary fulfillment of the Misva. Therefore, it is incumbent upon everyone to pay close attention the repetition of Musaf. If one is distracted by talking or even learning (which is also prohibited), it is considered as though he did not hear these Shofar blasts in their properly ordained place, following the sequence of the Berachot. Rather, one should follow the repetition with a Siddur, along with the Hazzan. The Ben Ish Hai (Rav Yosef Haim of Baghdad, 1833-1909) in Parashat Teruma strongly emphasizes the obligation to give proper respect to the Hazara, adding that it is even more important than the silent Amida. Nobody would dream of talking during the silent Amida, how much more so one must be careful in the Hazara. Of course, the importance of answering Baruc…
Sep 17, 2020
Rosh Hashanah - Why Do We Not Mention Rosh Hodesh in the Rosh Hashanah Prayers?
The Gemara in Masechet Erubin (40) addresses the question of whether we must make mention of Rosh Hodesh in the Rosh Hashanah prayer. Rosh Hashanah, of course, is observed on the first day of Tishri, and is thus also Rosh Hodesh, and in the times of the Bet Ha’mikdash the usual Rosh Hodesh sacrifices were brought in addition to the special Rosh Hashanah sacrifices. We might therefore assume that we should mention the occasion of Rosh Hodesh in our Rosh Hashanah prayers, just as we mention it on any ordinary Rosh Hodesh. The Gemara concludes, however, that we do not mention Rosh Hodesh in our Rosh Hashanah prayers, because "Zikaron Ehad Oleh Le’kan U’le’kan." This means that the mention of "Yom Ha’zikaron" in reference to Rosh Hashanah incorporates the occasion of Rosh Hodesh, and therefore no special mention of Rosh Hodesh is required. This is codified in the Shulhan Aruch, and this is the widespread practice. Interestingly, we find this concept of "Zikaron Ehad Oleh Le’ka…