Aripiprazole Pharmacology
Play • 14 min

Aripiprazole is metabolized by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4. Because of this, drug interactions can happen. I discuss specific examples in this episode.

Partial dopamine agonist activity and serotonergic activity make up a significant amount of aripiprazole’s pharmacology.

Aripiprazole is classified as an antipsychotic and can be used in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression augmentation.

Aripiprazole can cause significant akathesia. I discuss this adverse effect on this episode.

I discuss important drug interactions on the podcast, be sure to check out my latest project which is a 200+ page book on managing drug interactions in primary care.

Be sure to check out our free Top 200 study guide – a 31 page PDF that is yours for FREE!

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Treating patients with delusional infestation with Dr. John Koo and Dr. Scott Norton
John Koo, MD, and Scott A. Norton, MD, MPH, join host Lorenzo Norris, MD, for this special edition of the Psychcast. This is a crossover episode with our sister podcast, Dermatology Weekly. Dr. Koo is a psychiatrist and a dermatologist at the University of California, San Francisco. He has no disclosures. Dr. Norton is a dermatologist with the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Md., and with George Washington University, Washington. He has no disclosures. They are featured in an article on this topic online at Dr. Norris is associate dean of student affairs and administration at George Washington University. He has no disclosures. Take-home points * Delusional infestation or delusions of infestation, also known as delusional parasitosis, is a fixed false belief that one has an infestation of animate or inanimate pathogens, despite strong evidence against infestation. Common precipitants of delusional infestation include previous exposure to external or internal parasites, stress, and travel. The condition is more common among highly functional older women. * A recent study estimated the prevalence of delusional infestation as 1.9/100,000, though the condition is an area of limited study. Delusional infestation is poorly recognized by physicians, therapists, and families, which leads patients to search for an external cause of the symptoms and contributes to distress for patients and their loved ones. * Patients with delusional parasitosis often lack insight into their disease, and it can be difficult to persuade them to take the recommended treatment of antipsychotics. * Low-dose pimozide, a first-generation antipsychotic, is the most common treatment for delusional infestation, particularly because it does not have Food and Drug Administration approval as a treatment for psychosis. Therefore, patients are less biased against taking this medication. Summary * Delusions of infestation are a monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis in which the only delusion present is one of infestation, and patients do not have other symptoms of psychotic spectrum illness. Secondary delusions of infestation may occur in individuals who use drugs, such as methamphetamine or cocaine, or who have a primary psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia. * Delusions of infestation is related to Morgellons disease, which is defined as a skin condition characterized by the presence of “threads” or filaments that patients believe are embedded in their skin and might be accompanied by stinging and itching sensations. * Patients with delusions of infestation usually present to a primary care physician or ED with symptoms of abnormal sensations of their skin, including crawling sensations. In addition, patients usually bring personal proof of their condition, such as a small bag of “specimens,” including pieces of lint, threads, or scabs. Some patients also bring in journals detailing the timing and associated factors of their symptoms. * Dr. Norton advises that physicians treating the patients with delusions of infestation should mentally prepare themselves against initial bias and set aside time for longer visits or several follow-up visits. Dr. Norton starts with the premise that the patient has an actual infestation or other underlying cause of their pruritus and performs a thorough, full-body exam for dermatologic conditions, and examines the materials patients bring with them using a double-headed microscope – so that he and the patient can look at the specimens together. * Dr. Koo often tells patients that they have Morgellons disease because it does not include the stigmatizing term of “delusional.” He reframes Morgellons as an infestation that cannot be cured by internal or external antiparasitic medications. He then pivots away from etiology to validation of their emotions and eventually to treatment. * Dr. Koo usually often starts treatment with pimozide because it is an antipsychotic with FDA approval for Tourette syndrome – not schizophrenia. This perceived absence of a connection of the medication to psychiatric illness allows patients to be more open to taking the medication. * For primary delusional infestation, Dr. Koo starts with pimozide. The dose, which is daily and taken orally, starts low at 0.5 mg and goes up by 0.5 mg every 2-4 weeks. The aim is to get up to 3 mg per day. Low doses of pimozide and other antipsychotics lead to decreased sensation of itching and formication. Dr. Koo refers to his treatment plan as a “trapezoid-like dosage strategy.” Once he gets the patient to 3 mg, he continues the medication until all the symptoms disappear and then continues the medication for an additional 3 months. Dr. Koo then slowly tapers the dosage over an additional few months. * The keys to successful treatment include communicating with patients and working collaboratively with them. This approach builds trust and rapport. References Brown GE et al. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res. 2014;5:6. doi: 10.4172/2155-9554.1000241. Kohorst JJ et al. JAMA Dermatol. 2018 May 1;154(5):615-7. Lepping P et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Oct;77(4):778-9. Middelveen MJ et al. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2018;11:71-90. Lepping P et al. Acta Derm Venereol. 2020 Sep 16. doi: 10.2340/00015555-3625. Freudenmann RW et al. Br J Dermatol. 2012 Aug;167(2):247-51. Wolf RC et al. Neuropsychobiology. 2020;79:335-44. * * * Show notes by Jacqueline Posada, MD, associate producer of the Psychcast; assistant clinical professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at George Washington University, Washington; and staff physician at George Washington Medical Faculty Associates, also in Washington. Dr. Posada has no conflicts of interest. For more MDedge Podcasts, go to Email the show:
57 min
Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast
Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast
103. Case Report: A Rare Cause of Postpartum Angina and Arrest – University of Maryland
CardioNerds (Amit Goyal & Daniel Ambinder) join University of Maryland cardiology fellows (Manu Mysore, Adam Zviman, and Scott Butler) for some cardiology and an Orioles game in Baltimore! They discuss a rare cause of postpartum angina and cardiac arrest due to coronary vasculitis. Program director Dr. Mukta Srivastava provides the E-CPR expert segment and a message for applicants. Episode notes were developed by Johns Hopkins internal medicine resident Rick Ferraro with mentorship from University of Maryland cardiology fellow Karan Desai. This case has been published in JACC Case Reports! Collect free CME/MOC credit just for enjoying this episode! Jump to: Patient summary - Case media - Case teaching - References Episode graphic by Dr. Carine Hamo Support our educational mission by becoming a Patron!Cardiology Programs Twitter Group created by Dr. Nosheen Reza CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Patient Summary A woman in her early 30s with a past medical history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and one prior miscarriage at <8 weeks presented with chest pain about 6 weeks postpartum from the birth of her third child. In the ED, she continued to report intermittent sharp chest discomfort and found to have a diastolic decrescendo murmur at the left upper sternal border and labs demonstrating a troponin-I of 0.07 ng/dL. Join the UMD Cardionerds for the incredible course and story of this young patient as we go through the differentia and approach to postpartum chest pain and ultimately arrive in a very rare diagnosis!   For a detailed course, enjoy the JACC case report. Case Media Visit the JACC Case Reports to review the case media! Episode Schematics & Teaching The CardioNerds 5! – 5 major takeaways from the #CNCR case 1. How Do We Evaluate Chest Pain in Younger Patients  Start with the same things as everyone else!  Think broadly about the big three concerning etiologies of chest pain: Cardiac, Gastric, and Pulmonary (The excellent Clinical Problems Solvers 4+2+2 construct here is always a great resource. Find them at:   Of course it is important to think about non-life threatening etiologies as well – esophageal spasm, gastric ulcer, rib fracture, skin lesion, among many others - given that high-risk chest pain is less likely in younger adults.  While less common, acute coronary syndrome is not uncommon in young patients, as 23% of patients with MI present at age <55 years.   2. What About Chest Pain in Women?   As has been discussed on the Cardionerds podcast (Listen to episodes with Dr. Nanette Wenger, Dr Martha Gulati, and Dr. Leslie Cho), women generally present with acute coronary syndrome at a later age, with a higher burden of risk factors than men, and with greater symptom burden but are less likely to be treated with guideline-directed medical therapies, undergo cardiac catheterization and receive timely reperfusion. In one study of young patients with acute MI, women – 19% of cases overall – were less likely to undergo revascularization or receive guideline-directed therapy The construct of classifying chest pain as "typical" and "atypical" likely leads to misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in women. Rather, it is important to recognize that while symptoms may not be "typical" for angina, coronary disease can manifest in many different ways.  While many women will presents with chest pain suggestive of angina, women are more likely than men to present with dyspnea, indigestion, weakness, nausea/vomiting and/or fatigue. Note, shoulder pain and arm pain are twice as predictive of an acute myocardial infarction diagnosis in women compared with men.  Furthermore,
52 min
BrainWaves: A Neurology Podcast
BrainWaves: A Neurology Podcast
Jim Siegler, MD | Neurologist | Father | Friend of dogs
#177 Agnosia
To quote Donald Rumsfeld, “there are things we know we know…. we know there are some things we do not know... But there are also unknown unknowns—the ones we don't know we don't know…it is the latter category that tends to be the difficult ones.” In neurology, the agnosias are not that dissimilar from Rumsfeld’s 'unknown unknowns.' In this week’s program, we discuss the nosology and nomenclature for the agnosias, the localization, and the importance of recognizing one. Produced by James E. Siegler. Music courtesy of Dr. Turtle, Grossman, Ewell and Grainger, Marco Trovatelli, and Purple Planet Music. The opening theme was composed by Jimothy Dalton. Sound effects by Mike Koenig and Daniel Simion. Unless otherwise mentioned in the podcast, no competing financial interests exist in the content of this episode. BrainWaves' podcasts and online content are intended for medical education only and should not be used for clinical decision making. Be sure to follow us on Twitter @brainwavesaudio for the latest updates to the podcast. REFERENCES * Milner AD, Perrett DI, Johnston RS, Benson PJ, Jordan TR, Heeley DW, Bettucci D, Mortara F, Mutani R, Terazzi E and et al. Perception and action in 'visual form agnosia'. Brain. 1991;114 ( Pt 1B):405-28. * Zeki S and Ffytche DH. The Riddoch syndrome: insights into the neurobiology of conscious vision. Brain. 1998;121 ( Pt 1):25-45. * Biran I and Coslett HB. Visual agnosia. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. 2003;3:508-12. * Coslett HB. Apraxia, Neglect, and Agnosia. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2018;24:768-782. * Dhont S, Derom E, Van Braeckel E, Depuydt P and Lambrecht BN. The pathophysiology of 'happy' hypoxemia in COVID-19. Respir Res. 2020;21:198. * Li YC, Bai WZ and Hashikawa T. The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV2 may play a role in the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol. 2020;92:552-555. * Matschke J, Lutgehetmann M, Hagel C, Sperhake JP, Schroder AS, Edler C, Mushumba H, Fitzek A, Allweiss L, Dandri M, Dottermusch M, Heinemann A, Pfefferle S, Schwabenland M, Sumner Magruder D, Bonn S, Prinz M, Gerloff C, Puschel K, Krasemann S, Aepfelbacher M and Glatzel M. Neuropathology of patients with COVID-19 in Germany: a post-mortem case series. The Lancet Neurology. 2020;19:919-929.
15 min
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