Anatomy of Next
Anatomy of Next
Feb 11, 2019
NEW WORLD #10 — Sex in Space, Part One
Play • 24 min
Sex, reproduction, and marriage have been linked for most of human history, but today that paradigm is evolving. This season of Anatomy of Next we've looked at every aspect of turning Mars into a habitable world. Now what about the changes in biology that are going to alter the way we populate our world? From artificial gametes derived from skin cells and genetically-modified embryos to babies in bags, polyamory, and the heteroflexible astronaut – let's talk about sex.
80,000 Hours Podcast with Rob Wiblin
80,000 Hours Podcast with Rob Wiblin
The 80000 Hours team
#90 – Ajeya Cotra on worldview diversification and how big the future could be
You wake up in a mysterious box, and hear the booming voice of God: _“I just flipped a coin. If it came up heads, I made ten boxes, labeled 1 through 10 — each of which has a human in it. If it came up tails, I made ten billion boxes, labeled 1 through 10 billion — also with one human in each box. To get into heaven, you have to answer this correctly: Which way did the coin land?”_ You think briefly, and decide you should bet your eternal soul on tails. The fact that you woke up at all seems like pretty good evidence that you’re in the big world — if the coin landed tails, way more people should be having an experience just like yours. But then you get up, walk outside, and look at the number on your box. ‘3’. Huh. Now you don’t know what to believe. If God made 10 billion boxes, surely it's much more likely that you would have seen a number like 7,346,678,928? In today's interview, Ajeya Cotra — a senior research analyst at Open Philanthropy — explains why this thought experiment from the niche of philosophy known as 'anthropic reasoning' could be relevant for figuring out where we should direct our charitable giving. Links to learn more, summary and full transcript. Some thinkers both inside and outside Open Philanthropy believe that philanthropic giving should be guided by 'longtermism' — the idea that we can do the most good if we focus primarily on the impact our actions will have on the long-term future. Ajeya thinks that for that notion to make sense, there needs to be a good chance we can settle other planets and solar systems and build a society that's both very large relative to what's possible on Earth and, by virtue of being so spread out, able to protect itself from extinction for a very long time. But imagine that humanity has two possible futures ahead of it: Either we’re going to have a huge future like that, in which trillions of people ultimately exist, or we’re going to wipe ourselves out quite soon, thereby ensuring that only around 100 billion people ever get to live. If there are eventually going to be 1,000 trillion humans, what should we think of the fact that we seemingly find ourselves so early in history? Being among the first 100 billion humans, as we are, is equivalent to walking outside and seeing a three on your box. Suspicious! If the future will have many trillions of people, the odds of us appearing so strangely early are very low indeed. If we accept the analogy, maybe we can be confident that humanity is at a high risk of extinction based on this so-called 'doomsday argument' alone. If that’s true, maybe we should put more of our resources into avoiding apparent extinction threats like nuclear war and pandemics. But on the other hand, maybe the argument shows we're incredibly unlikely to achieve a long and stable future no matter what we do, and we should forget the long term and just focus on the here and now instead. There are many critics of this theoretical ‘doomsday argument’, and it may be the case that it logically doesn't work. This is why Ajeya spent time investigating it, with the goal of ultimately making better philanthropic grants. In this conversation, Ajeya and Rob discuss both the doomsday argument and the challenge Open Phil faces striking a balance between taking big ideas seriously, and not going all in on philosophical arguments that may turn out to be barking up the wrong tree entirely. They also discuss: • Which worldviews Open Phil finds most plausible, and how it balances them • How hard it is to get to other solar systems • The 'simulation argument' • When transformative AI might actually arrive • And much more Producer: Keiran Harris. Audio mastering: Ben Cordell. Transcriptions: Sofia Davis-Fogel.
2 hr 59 min
Disruptors
Disruptors
RBC Thought Leadership, John Stackhouse
2021, Year of the Gamer: How Video Game Culture is Conquering Canada and the World
Did anyone in your household wake up to find a new video game, virtual reality headset, or console under the tree over the holidays? Do your kids spend hours on end online, watching their favourite gamers on Twitch, Tik-Tok, or YouTube? Is your business struggling to connect with young people, those elusive members of Gen-Z who don’t watch TV, listen to radio, or read newspapers? If your answer to any of those questions is ‘yes’, this podcast is definitely for you. On this episode of _Disruptors, _an RBC podcast, it’s ‘game on’, as host John Stackhouse dives into what are likely unfamiliar waters for most people over a certain age; the world of gaming, influencers, and esports. It’s projected to become a $300 billion dollar business over the next decade, and as John hears from his main guest, Adrian Montgomery, the CEO of Toronto’s Enthusiast Gaming, a staggering percentage of young people now consider it a key component of their very identities. Add it all up, and you’ll learn why gaming has become a critical conduit for reaching and engaging with that increasingly influential demographic in 2021, as Canada struggles to recover from the pandemic. John and Adrian will also hear from other organizations on the front lines of this disruption: Josh Marcus, the co-founder of Rumble Gaming and MKM Esports; Kevin Truong, the Head of Esports & Gaming at the Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation; and Tawanda Masawi, the CEO & co-founder of GameSeta eSports. Over the course of the conversation, they touch on a surprisingly broad range of topics, including the U.S. Presidential Race, how esports could supplant traditional sports, and even Sidney Crosby’s golden goal for Team Canada at the 2010 Olympics. Notes: You can click the following links to learn more about the companies and organizations mentioned in this episode: Enthusiast Gaming, Rumble Gaming, GameSeta Esports, and the Princess Margaret Cancer Foundation’s Quest to Conquer Cancer. The latest numbers on video game spending in Canada can be found HERE. For further reading, we recommend Game On! A Look at the Economics of eSports, from RBC Direct Investing, and eSports: About To Go Mainstream, a previous _Disruptors_ piece from December of 2017.
37 min
Future Positive
Future Positive
XPRIZE Foundation
AI in Contact Tracing and Data Privacy
When it comes to fighting infectious disease outbreaks, contact tracing is a key public health response. Mobile technologies including GPS, Bluetooth, cellphone masts and AI-powered big data analytics, can help collect data that helps decision-makers understand and manage the spread of pandemics like COVID-19 within their own communities.   But when using this kind of technology, it’s critical to preserve personal privacy to not only maintain public trust but especially to protect vulnerable individuals during a crisis. This episode explores how privacy-preserving techniques such as homomorphic encryption and solutions for mobile phone contact tracing can be deployed, including real-world examples from Israel and the US. Today’s episode was originally recorded at AI For Good, an annual global summit hosted by ITU and XPRIZE, and while some elements of the conversation are more timely to COVID’s spread in April 2020 at the time of recording, our guests discuss explore how developers are creating tracing software, its importance in early response efforts and technical specifics, all of which are especially relevant challenges still today.   Thomas Wiegand is a German electrical engineer who substantially contributed to the creation of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and H.265/MPEG-H HEVC video coding standards. For H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, Wiegand was one of the chairmen of the Joint Video Team (JVT) standardization committee that created the standard and was the chief editor of the standard itself. He was also an active technical contributor to both standards. Wiegand also holds a chairmanship position in the ITU-T VCEG and previously in ISO/IEC MPEG standardization organizations. In July 2006, the video coding work of the ITU-T jointly led by Gary J. Sullivan and Wiegand for the preceding six years was voted as the most influential area of the standardization work of the CCITT and ITU-T in their 50-year history. Wiegand is Professor at the Technical University of Berlin and executive director of the Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Berlin, Germany. He heads research teams working on : Video processing and coding, Multimedia transmission, Machine learning, Mobile Communications (management) and Computer Vision (management). Kurt Rohloff is the co-founder and CTO of Duality Technologies, a technology start-up enabling privacy-preserving analytics and collaboration on sensitive data. He leads the development of PALISADE, an open source homomorphic encryption software library that encrypts data so that they can be safely used for predictive analytics while preserving private information. Prior to co-founding Duality he was a professor of computer science at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He received his PhD from the University of Michigan. He is the recipient of a DARPA Director’s Fellowship.   Links:  https://dualitytech.com/  https://aiforgood.itu.int/  xprize.org/blog See acast.com/privacy for privacy and opt-out information.
51 min
The Future of Life
The Future of Life
Future of Life Institute
Beatrice Fihn on the Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons
Beatrice Fihn, executive director of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) and Nobel Peace Prize recipient, joins us to discuss the current risks of nuclear war, policies that can reduce the risks of nuclear conflict, and how to move towards a nuclear weapons free world. Topics discussed in this episode include: -The current nuclear weapons geopolitical situation -The risks and mechanics of accidental and intentional nuclear war -Policy proposals for reducing the risks of nuclear war -Deterrence theory -The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons -Working towards the total elimination of nuclear weapons You can find the page for this podcast here: https://futureoflife.org/2021/01/21/beatrice-fihn-on-the-total-elimination-of-nuclear-weapons/ Timestamps:  0:00 Intro 4:28 Overview of the current nuclear weapons situation 6:47 The 9 nuclear weapons states, and accidental and intentional nuclear war 9:27 Accidental nuclear war and human systems 12:08 The risks of nuclear war in 2021 and nuclear stability 17:49 Toxic personalities and the human component of nuclear weapons 23:23 Policy proposals for reducing the risk of nuclear war 23:55 New START Treaty 25:42 What does it mean to maintain credible deterrence 26:45 ICAN and working on the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 28:00 Deterrence theoretic arguments for nuclear weapons 32:36 The reduction of nuclear weapons, no first use, removing ground based missile systems, removing hair-trigger alert, removing presidential authority to use nuclear weapons 39:13 Arguments for and against nuclear risk reduction policy proposals 46:02 Moving all of the United State's nuclear weapons to bombers and nuclear submarines 48:27 Working towards and the theory of the total elimination of nuclear weapons 1:11:40 The value of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons 1:14:26 Elevating activism around nuclear weapons and messaging more skillfully 1:15:40 What the public needs to understand about nuclear weapons 1:16:35 World leaders' views of the treaty 1:17:15 How to get involved This podcast is possible because of the support of listeners like you. If you found this conversation to be meaningful or valuable, consider supporting it directly by donating at futureoflife.org/donate. Contributions like yours make these conversations possible.
1 hr 18 min
COMPLEXITY
COMPLEXITY
Santa Fe Institute, Michael Garfield
Cris Moore on Algorithmic Justice & The Physics of Inference
It’s tempting to believe that people can outsource decisions to machines — that algorithms are objective, and it’s easier and fairer to dump the burden on them. But convenience conceals the complicated truth: when lives are made or broken by AI, we need transparency about the way we ask computers questions, and we need to understand what kinds of problems they’re not suited for. Sometimes we may be using the wrong models, and sometimes even great models fail when fed sparse or noisy data. Applying physics insights to the practical concerns of what an algorithm can and cannot do, scientists find points at which questions suddenly become unanswerable. Even with access to great data, not everything’s an optimization problem: there may be more than one right answer. Ultimately, it is crucial that we understand the limits of the technology we leverage to help us navigate our complex world — and the values that (often invisibly) determine how we use it. Welcome to COMPLEXITY, the official podcast of the Santa Fe Institute. I’m your host, Michael Garfield, and every other week we’ll bring you with us for far-ranging conversations with our worldwide network of rigorous researchers developing new frameworks to explain the deepest mysteries of the universe. We kick off 2021 with SFI Resident Professor Cristopher Moore, who has written over 150 papers at the boundary between physics and computer science, to talk about his work in the physics of inference and with The Algorithmic Justice Project. If you value our research and communication efforts, please consider making a donation at santafe.edu/give — and/or rating and reviewing us at Apple Podcasts. You can find numerous other ways to engage with us at santafe.edu/engage. Thank you for listening! Join our Facebook discussion group to meet like minds and talk about each episode. Podcast theme music by Mitch Mignano. Follow us on social media: Twitter • YouTube • Facebook • Instagram • LinkedIn Related Reading: Cris Moore’s Google Scholar Page The Algorithmic Justice Project “The Computer Science and Physics of Community Detection: Landscapes, Phase Transitions, and Hardness" _The Ethical Algorithm _by SFI External Professor Michael Kearns “Prevalence-induced concept change in human judgment” co-authored by SFI External Professor Thalia Wheatley “The Uncertainty Principle” with SFI Miller Scholar John Kaag SFI External Professor Andreas Wagner on play as a form of noise generation that can knock an inference algorithm off false endpoints/local optima Related Videos: Cris Moore’s ICTS Turing Talks on “Complexities, phase transitions, and inference” Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency: Lessons from predictive models in criminal justice Reckoning and Judgment The Promise of AI Easy, Hard, and Impossible Problems: The Limits of Computation. Ulam Memorial Lecture #1. Data, Algorithms, Justice, and Fairness. Ulam Memorial Lecture #2. Related Podcasts: Fighting Hate Speech with AI & Social Science (with Joshua Garland, Mirta Galesic, and Keyan Ghazi-Zahedi) Better Scientific Modeling for Ecological & Social Justice with David Krakauer (Transmission Series Ep. 7) Embracing Complexity for Systemic Interventions with David Krakauer (Transmission Series Ep. 5) Rajiv Sethi on Stereotypes, Crime, and The Pursuit of Justice
1 hr 12 min
THE INTELLECTUAL DARK WEB PODCAST (HOBBES + LOCKE + ROUSSEAU + US CONSTITUTION in ONE BOOK for 29$)
THE INTELLECTUAL DARK WEB PODCAST (HOBBES + LOCKE + ROUSSEAU + US CONSTITUTION in ONE BOOK for 29$)
Intellectual Dark Web Podcast
Elon Musk - Fireside Chat
Elon Musk - Fireside Chat THE INTELLECTUAL DARK WEB PODCAST We Search the Web for the Best Intellectual Dark Web Podcasts, Lectures and Videos that can be understood by merely listening to save YOUR time. Then we make those Intellectual Dark Web Episodes available on Spotify and downloadable. IMPORTANT! AMAZON DELETED THE LAST INEXPENSIVE BINDING. IT WAS TOO CHEAP! HERE IS ANOTHER VERSION FOR STUDENTS WITH HOBBES, LOCKE, ROUSSEAU AND THE US CONST. IN ONE BOOK: ||| MACHIAVELLI https://www.lulu.com/en/us/shop/niccolo-machiavelli-and-john-locke-and-thomas-hobbes-and-peter-kanzler/the-leviathan-1651-the-two-treatises-of-government-1689-and-the-constitution-of-pennsylvania-1776/paperback/product-69m6we.html XXX https://www.bookfinder.com/search/?author=peter%2Bkanzler&title=pennsylvania%2Bconstitution%2Bleviathan&lang=en&isbn=9781716844508&new_used=N&destination=us&currency=USD&mode=basic&st=sr&ac=qr || ROUSSEAU https://www.lulu.com/en/us/shop/jean-jacques-rousseau-and-thomas-hobbes-and-john-locke-and-peter-kanzler/the-leviathan-1651-the-two-treatises-of-government-1689-the-social-contract-1762-the-constitution-of-pennsylvania-1776/paperback/product-782nvr.html XXX https://www.bookfinder.com/search/?author=peter%2Bkanzler&title=pennsylvania%2Bconstitution%2Bleviathan&lang=en&isbn=9781716893407&new_used=N&destination=us&currency=USD&mode=basic&st=sr&ac=qr | Thank You Dearly For ANY Support! And God Bless You.
1 hr 5 min
Economics Explained
Economics Explained
Economics Explained
The "Perfect" Little Economy of New Zealand
This is new Zealand, a picturesque nation whos economy looks to exclusively rely on throwing their tourists off cliffs in increasingly imaginative ways and being left off of world maps. But Australia’s little brother is so much more than that and it might truely be the world’s best managed economy. Everything from the world banks ease of doing business index, from multiple quality of life assessments puts new zealand in the top spot. Move aside Norway. What’s more is that it has achieved this remarkable prosperity despite not having a huge supply of natural resources, or acting as some tax haven for global businesses like so many other apparent economic miracles we have explored before. No New Zealand has got to where it is today by carefully managing a market economy and providing a safe, stable and confidence inspiring place to start a family, a business, and a career. Of course there are still some problems and we will certainly get to them but after exploring the Economy of Argentina last week, it’s now time to get out your pen and paper and take notes on how to actually run an economy. And to do this as always we are going to break the economy into some important categories. What are the primary drivers of New Zealand's economic prosperity? How has the nation been able to accommodate these where other nations fail to do so? And what are the challenges the nation might face to keep this success going? Once thats all done we can then put New zealand on the economics explained national leaderboard.
18 min
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